Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Liver Cancer or hepatic tumor could be a cancer of Liver. There are many varieties differing types|differing kinds} of tumours that may develop within the liver as liver is formed cancer-imageof various cell types. These growths is benign or malignant. Cancerous tumours will begin in liver and spread to alternative areas of your body, through your blood or your lymphatic system. This unfold of cancer is termed metastasis. Tumours can also unfold from alternative components of your body, like from your bowel, breast or lungs, to your liver.

Knowing the signs helps a doctor to create an accurate diagnosis call regarding the cancer stage and its treatment. The below-mentioned factors signal regarding cancer, and if you observe these for a extended period, consult a doctor for treatment.

Symptoms

Most people don’t have signs and symptoms in the early stages of primary liver cancer. When signs and symptoms do appear, they may include:

  • Losing weight without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • General weakness and fatigue
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Yellow discoloration of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) White, chalky stools.

Treatment overview                                           

In cancer care, differing kinds of doctors typically work along to create a patient’s overall treatment set up that combines differing kinds of treatments.. Cancer care groups also include a spread of alternative health care professionals, as well as physician assistants, medicine nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors:

  • How much of the liver is affected by the cancer
  • Whether the cancer has spread
  • The patient’s preferences and overall health
  • The damage to the remaining cancer-free area of the liver.

When a tumor is found at associate early stage and therefore the patient’s liver is functioning well, treatment is aimed at attempting to eliminate the cancer. The care arrange may additionally include treatment for symptoms and aspect effects, a very important a part of cancer care once liver cancer is found at a later stage, or the patient’s liver isn’t operating well, the patient and doctor should talk about the goals of every treatment recommendation. At now, the goals of treatment could specialize in slowing growth of the cancer and relieving symptoms to improve quality of life.

The various disease-directed treatment options can be grouped according to whether they may cure the cancer or will improve survival but will most likely not eliminate the cancer. Descriptions of the most common treatment options, both disease-directed and those aimed at managing side effects and symptoms, are listed below. Take time to learn about your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your doctor and what you can expect while receiving the treatment.

Two types of surgery are used to treat.

  • Hepatectomy :-when a portion of the liver is removed, the surgery is named a hepatectomy. A hepatectomy will be done provided that the cancer is in one a part of the liver and also the liver is functioning well. The remaining section of liver takes over the functions of the whole liver. The liver might grow back to its traditional size at intervals many weeks. A hepatectomy might not be possible if the patient has advanced cirrhosis, even if the tumour is little.

The side effects of a hepatectomy may include pain, weakness, fatigue, and temporary liver failure. The health care team will watch for signs of bleeding, infection, liver failure, or other problems that need immediate treatment.

  • Liver transplantation. Sometimes, a liver transplantation can be done. This procedure is possible only when the cancer has not spread outside the liver, a suitable donor is found, and very specific criteria are met in terms of tumor size and number. These criteria usually are a single tumor 5 cm or smaller or 3 or fewer tumors, all of which are smaller than 3 cm. It is important to understand that the number of donor livers available is very limited, so transplantation is not always an option.

After a transplant, the patient will be watched closely for signs that the body might be rejecting the new liver or that the tumor has come back. The patient must take medication to prevent rejection. These drugs can cause side effects, such as puffiness in the face, high blood pressure, or increased body hair.

Liver transplantation is a particularly effective treatment for people with a small tumor because transplantation removes the tumor and the damaged liver. However, there are few donors, and people waiting for a liver transplant may have to wait for a long time before a liver becomes available. During this time, the disease may get worse. The transplant center will advise you on how long the wait is likely to be and what rules are used to prioritize people on the waiting list.

Diagnosing liver cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver cancer include:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests may reveal liver function abnormalities.
  • Imaging tests. Your doctor may recommend imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Removing a sample of liver tissue for testing. Your doctor may recommend removing a piece of liver tissue for laboratory testing in order to make a definitive diagnosis of liver cancer.
  • Ultrasound test — The ultrasound device uses sound waves that cannot be heard by humans. The sound waves produce a pattern of echoes as they bounce off internal organs. The echoes create a picture (sonogram) of the liver and other organs in the abdomen. Tumors may produce echoes that are different from the echoes made by healthy tissues.
  • MRI — A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures are viewed on a monitor and can also be printed.
  • Angiogram — For an angiogram, the patient may be in the hospital and may have anesthesia. The doctor injects dye into an artery so that the blood vessels in the liver show up on an x-ray. The angiogram can reveal a tumor in the liver.
  • Biopsy — In some cases, the doctor may remove a sample of tissue. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue. The doctor may obtain tissue in several ways. One way is by inserting a thin needle into the liver to remove a small amount of tissue. This is called fine-needle aspiration. The doctor may use CT or ultrasound to guide the needle. Sometimes the doctor obtains a sample of tissue with a thick needle (core biopsy) or by inserting a thin, lighted tube (laparoscope) into a small incision in the abdomen. Another way is to remove tissue during an operation.

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Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Advanced Treatment of Spinal Fusion Surgery Hospitals in India

What is Spinal Fusion ?

The operation of spinal fusion is performed to correct issues related to the little bones of the spine. The fusion is primarily in deep trouble eliminating the pain that has been caused by abnormal motion of the vertebrae.2526

Spinal fusion is essentially performed within the body part region of the spine and is additionally wont to treat pectoral and cervical issues. fusion relieves symptoms of many back issues that includes –

 

 

• Infection
• Degenerative disk disease
• Tumor
• Spondylolisthesis
• Fracture
• Scoliosis
• Spinal stenosis

The basic role of spinal fusion with Instrumentation & Stabilization is to produce further spinal stability whereas setting-up associate surroundings for fusion. numerous types of medical instrumentation devices are developed to assist successful spinal fusion as bones tend to fuse effectively during a stabilised atmosphere with very little motion. Instrumentation may be a style of ingrained medical device that helps fusion set-up by limiting motion at the united phase. Sometimes manufactured from titanium or stainless steel, instrumentation devices usually are available in several shapes & sizes to suit specific set-ups.

Uses of Spinal Fusion

Spinal fusion is performed to treat or relieve symptoms of many spinal problems. The procedure removes mobility between the two treated vertebrae. This may decrease flexibility, but it’s useful for treating spinal disorders that make movement painful. These disorders include:

  • tumors
  • spinal stenosis
  • herniated “bulging” disks
  • degenerative disk disease
  • fractured vertebrae that may be making your spinal column unstable
  • scoliosis (curvature of the spine)
  • kyphosis (abnormal rounding of the upper spine)

spinal weakness or instability due to severe arthritis, tumors, or infections spondylolisthesis (a condition in which one vertebra slips onto the vertebra below it, causing severe pain)

A spinal fusion procedure may also include a diskectomy. When performed alone, a diskectomy involves removing a disk due to damage or disease. When the disk is removed, bone grafts are placed into the empty disk space to maintain the right height between bones. Your doctor uses the two vertebrae on either side of the removed disk to form a bridge (or fusion) across the bone grafts to promote long-term stability.

When spinal fusion is performed in the cervical spine along with a diskectomy, it’s called cervical fusion. Instead of removing a vertebra, the surgeon removes disks or bone spurs from the cervical spine, which is in the neck. There are seven vertebrae separated by intervertebral disks in the cervical spine.

Preparing for Spinal Fusion

Typically, the preparation for spinal fusion is like other surgical procedures. It requires preoperative laboratory testing. Before spinal fusion, you should tell your physician about any of the following:

cigarette smoking, which may reduce your ability to heal from spinal fusion alcohol use any illnesses you have, including colds, the flu, or herpes any prescription or over-the-counter medications you’re taking, including herbs and supplements.

You’ll want to discuss how the medications you’re taking should be used before and after the procedure. Your doctor may provide special instructions if you’re taking medications that could affect blood clotting. These include anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen.

You’ll be given general anesthesia, so you’ll need to fast for at least eight hours before your procedure. On the day of surgery, use only a sip of water to take any medications your physician has recommended. Complications of Spinal Fusion.

Spinal fusion, like any surgery, carries the risk of certain complications, such as:-

  • infection
  • blood clots
  • bleeding and blood loss
  • respiratory problems
  • heart attack or stroke during surgery
  • inadequate wound healing
  • reactions to medications or anesthesia

Spinal fusion also carries the risk of the following rare complications:

  • infection in the treated vertebrae or wound.
  • damage to a spinal nerve, which can cause weakness, pain, and bowel or bladder problems.
  • additional stress on the bones adjacent to the fused vertebrae.
  • persistent pain at the bone graft site.
  • blood clots in the legs that can be life-threatening if they travel to the lungs.

The most serious complications are blood clots and infection, which are most likely to occur during the first weeks following surgery.

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Advanced Treatment of Spinal Fusion Surgery Hospitals in India

Most Advanced Heart Valve Repair or Replacement Surgery With Best Hospitals in India

Overview

Heart valve surgery is a procedure to treat heart valve disease. In heart valve disease, at least one of the four heart valves that keep blood flowing in the correct direction through your heart doesn’t function properly.

These valves include the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each544 valve has flaps called leaflets, for the mitral and tricuspid valves, and cusps, for the aortic and pulmonary valves. These flaps open and close once during each heartbeat. Sometimes the valves don’t open or close properly, disrupting the blood flow through your heart to your body.

In heart valve surgery, your surgeon repairs or replaces the affected heart valves. Many surgical procedures may be used to repair or replace heart valves, including open-heart surgery or minimally invasive heart surgery.

Your treatment depends on several factors, including your age, health, the condition of the heart valve that is affected and the severity of your condition.

Your treatment depends on several factors, including your age, health, the condition of the heart valve that is affected and the severity of your condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure

In the early stages, Heart Failure may not have any symptoms. In the later stages, the patient may have severe symptoms because the weakened heart is unable to pump enough oxygen-rich blood with each contraction to satisfy the body.

Heart valve surgery risks may include:

  • Bleeding
  • Heart attack
  • Infection
  • Valve dysfunction in replacement valve
  • Irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia)
  • Stroke
  • Death

Diagnosis for Heart Failure

There is no single test that can diagnose Heart Failure. The patient may have to go some of the following tests –

  1. EKG (Electrocardiogram) – This test is used to measure the heart’s electrical activity. It may show if the patient has had a heart attack or if there is thickening of the walls in the heart’s pumping chambers (ventricles) or if the heart rhythms are abnormal.
  2. Chest X-ray – A chest X-ray shows if the heart is enlarged or if there is fluid in the lungs, or any lung disease.
  3. BNP Blood Test – This test checks the level of a hormone called BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) that rises in Heart Failure.
  4. Thyroid Function Tests – These tests reveal whether an overactive or an under-active thyroid is responsible for Heart Failure.
  5. Echocardiogram – Echocardiogram enables the doctor to evaluate the size, thickness and pumping action of the heart, as well as evaluate how well the heart valves are functioning. A stress echocardiogram may also be useful in assessing how well the heart is functioning at rest and during exercise.
  6. Coronary Angiography – This test, usually performed along with cardiac catheterization, helps the doctor see the flow of blood to the heart muscle.
  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – MRI shows detailed images of the structures and beating of the heart, enabling the doctor to assess if parts of the heart are weak or damaged.

How you prepare

Before surgery to have your heart valve repaired or replaced, your doctor and treatment team will explain to you what to expect before, during and after the surgery and potential risks of the surgery.

Your doctor and team will discuss with you concerns you may have about your heart valve surgery. Discuss with your doctor and treatment team any questions you may have about the procedure.

You’ll need to have your hair shaved at the location of your body where the procedure will take place.

Before being admitted to the hospital for your surgery, talk to your family about your hospital stay and discuss help you may need when you return home. Your doctor and treatment team may give you specific instructions to follow during your recovery when you return home.

Heart valve replacement:-

If your heart valve can’t be repaired, your doctor may recommend heart valve replacement. To replace a heart valve, your doctor removes the heart valve and replaces it with a mechanical valve or a valve made from cow, pig or human heart tissue (biological tissue valve).

Biological valves often eventually need to be replaced, as they degenerate over time. If you have a mechanical valve, you’ll need to take blood-thinning medications for the rest of your life to prevent blood clots. Doctors will discuss with you the risks and benefits of each type of valve and discuss which valve may be appropriate for you.

A minimally invasive catheter procedure may be conducted to replace certain heart valves. For example, a catheter procedure may be performed to insert a replacement valve into a biological replacement valve in the heart that is no longer working properly.

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Most Advanced Heart Valve Repair or Replacement Surgery With Best Hospitals in India

Most Advanced Pediatric Heart Surgery in India

Pediatric heart surgery.

Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that need surgery. The surgery is needed for the child’s well being.

There are several sorts of heart defects. Some are minor, and others area unit additional serious. pediatric-heart-surgery-1Defects will occur within the center or within the large blood vessels outside the heart. Some heart defects might have surgery right when the baby is born. For others, your kid could also be ready to safely wait for months or years to have surgery.
One surgery could also be enough to repair the heart defect, but typically a series of procedures is required. 3 completely different techniques for fixing congenital defects of the heart in children are described below.

Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine.

  • An incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia (the child is asleep and pain free).
  • Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a special pump called a heart-lung bypass machine. This machine adds oxygen to the blood and keeps the blood warm and moving through the rest of the body while the surgeon is repairing the heart.
  • Using the machine allows the heart to be stopped. Stopping the heart makes it possible to repair the heart muscle itself, the heart valves, or the blood vessels outside the heart. After the repair is done, the heart is started again, and the machine is removed. The breastbone and the skin incision are then closed.

For some heart defect repairs, the incision is made on the side of the chest, between the ribs. This is called a thoracotomy. It is sometimes called closed-heart surgery. This surgery may be done using special instruments and a camera.

Another way to fix defects in the heart is to insert small tubes into an artery in the leg and pass them up to the heart. Only some heart defects can be repaired this way.

The most common heart ailments in children are:

  • Fallot’s tetralogy
  • Ventricular Septal Defect
  • Atrial Septal Defect
  • Valvular defects
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Aortic coarctation
  • Tricuspid atresia

Procedure

There are various techniques to perform pediatric heart surgery, depending upon the heart defect the child is suffering from and the medical condition and age of the patient. Besides, the defects can be inside the heart or in large blood vessels outside the heart. Sometimes, one surgery may be enough to repair the defect, but sometimes a series of procedures are required to completely correct the defect.

Three different techniques are used to fix congenital heart defects in children described as below:

  1. Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine. It is done under general anesthesia
    • Incision is made through the breastbone (sternum)
    • Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a special pump called a heart-lung bypass machine. This machine adds oxygen to the blood and keeps the blood warm and moving through the rest of the body while the surgeon is repairing the heart.
    • Using the machine allows the heart to be stopped. Stopping the heart makes it possible to repair the heart muscle itself, the heart valves, or the blood vessels outside the heart. After the repair is done, the heart is started again, and the machine is removed. The breastbone and the skin incisions are then closed.
  2. Thoracotomy- Also known as closed heart surgery, during this type of surgery, the incision is made on the side of the chest, between the ribs. This type of surgery is done using special instruments and a camera.
  3. The other technique uses small tubes to be inserted in the heart through an artery in the leg. Only some heart defects can be repaired this way.

Why is the Procedure required?

If the following warning signs are found in children, it indicates that a surgery is required:

  • Blue or gray skin, nail beds and lips. These symptoms indicate that there is not enough oxygen in the blood (hypoxia).
  • If the child has difficulty in breathing because the lungs are “wet,” congested, or filled with fluid (heart failure).
  • If there exists problems in heart rhythm (arrhythmias) or heart rate.
  • If there is lack of growth and development of a child. And the child is not able to sleep and eat properly.

Risks for any surgery are:

  • Bleeding during surgery or in the days after surgery
  • Bad reactions to medicines
  • Problems breathing
  • Infection

Additional risks of heart surgery are:

  • Blood clots (thrombi)
  • Air bubbles (air emboli)
  • Pneumonia
  • Heartbeat problems (arrhythmias)
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke

Before the Procedure

If your child is talking, tell them about the surgery. If you have a preschool-aged child, tell them the day before what will happen. Say, for example, “We are going to the hospital to stay for a few days. The doctor is going to do an operation on your heart to make it work better.”

If your child is older, start talking about the procedure 1 week before the surgery. You should involve the child’s life specialist (someone who helps children and their families during times like major surgery) and show the child the hospital and surgical areas.

Your child may need many different tests:

  • Blood tests (complete blood count, electrolytes, clotting factors, and “cross match”)
  • X-rays of the chest
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG, or ECG)
  • Echocardiogram (ECHO, or ultrasound of the heart)
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • History and physical

Always tell your child’s health care provider what medicines your child is taking. Include drugs, herbs, and vitamins you bought without a prescription.

During the days before the surgery:

  • If your child is taking blood thinners (drugs that make it hard for blood to clot), such as warfarin (Coumadin) or heparin, talk with your child’s provider about when to stop giving these drugs to the child.
  • Ask which drugs the child should still take on the day of the surgery.

On the day of the surgery:

  • Your child will most often be asked not to drink or eat anything after midnight the night before the surgery.
  • Give your child any drugs you have been told to give with a small sip of water.
  • You will be told when to arrive at the hospital.

After the Procedure

Most children who have open-heart surgery need to stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 2 to 4 days right after surgery. They most often stay in the hospital for 5 to 7 more days after they leave the ICU. Stays in the intensive care unit and the hospital are often shorter for people who have closed-heart surgery.

During their time in the ICU, your child will have:

  • A tube in the airway (endotracheal tube) and a respirator to help with breathing. Your child will be kept sleeping (sedated) while on the respirator.
  • One or more small tubes in a vein (IV line) to give fluids and medicines.
  • A small tube in an artery (arterial line).
  • One or 2 chest tubes to drain air, blood, and fluid from the chest cavity.
  • A tube through the nose into the stomach (nasogastric tube) to empty the stomach and deliver medicines and feedings for several days.
  • A tube in the bladder to drain and measure the urine for several days.
  • Many electrical lines and tubes used to monitor the child.

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Most Advanced Pediatric Heart Surgery in India

Best Brain Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

A brain tumor or cancer grows once irregular cells are formed inside the region of brain. There are mainly 2 varieties of tumors like cancerous tumors and non-cancerous tumors. Cancerouscancer123 tumors could also be categorized into primary tumors that grow inside the brain itself and such tumors that spread from some totally different part recognized as brain metastasis tumors. all types of brain tumors will produce symptoms and signs that vary in keeping with the regions of the brain involved. Brain Cancer may be a illness which can be diagnosed and analysed with a thorough remedial examination. It doesn’t refer a schedule sickness since for the most conditions, it’s terribly deadly. it always happens once one form of the brain tissue loses its general options and transforms and begins multiplying to formulate an irregular lump of cells called tumor. nevertheless, not all sort of brain tumors is cancerous. Non cancerous brain tumors don’t have any threat and should be with success separated.

Types of Brain Cancer

  • Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma
  • Schwannoma
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Chordoma
  • Ptic nerve glioma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Pituitary neuroectodermal
  • Ganglioneuroma
  • Brain stem glioma
  • Pineal tumors
  • Meningioma
  • Primitive neuroectodermal
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Mixed glioma
  • Craniopharyngioma

Brain tumors can cause many symptoms. Some of the most common are

  • Headaches, often in the morning
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in your ability to talk, hear, or see
  • Problems with balance or walking
  • Problems with thinking or memory
  • Feeling weak or sleepy
  • Changes in your mood or behavior
  • Seizures

Doctors diagnose brain tumors by doing a neurologic exam and tests including an MRI, CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get a combination of treatments.

Diagnosis of Brain Tumor:-

Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) exerting a limiting control for any substance to pass. Hence, most tracers would be able reach brain tumors only with the disruption of the BBB. The disruption of the BBB (blood-brain-barrier) can be detected by a MRI and CT.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s brain-tumorgeneral health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s general health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Surgery as the way of Treatment

Surgery is normally the exclusion of the cancerous tumor and adjoining tissues during the process of operation. There are several sorts of surgery available for brain cancer, and the most helpful option frequently depends on the phase and malignancy of the brain cancer.

Additional treatment options for high-grade tumors include:

  • Radiation therapy: X-rays and other forms of radiation can destroy tumor cells or delay tumor growth.
  • Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to kill rapidly dividing cells. It can be taken orally or intravenously.
  • Targeted therapy: The focus on a specific element of a cell, such as molecules or pathways required for cell growth, in order to use them as a target.
  • Tumor Treating Fields: (A wearable device) locally or regionally delivered treatment that produces electric fields to disrupt the rapid cell division exhibited by cancer cells by creating alternating, “wave-like” electric fields that travel across their region of usage in different directions. Because structures within dividing cells have an electric charge, they interact with these electric fields.

Best brain cancer hospitals in India are as follows:

  • Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Chennai
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Bangalore
  • Jaypee Hospital, Noida

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Best Brain Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

 

What are signs and symptoms?

Signs and symptoms are both signals of injury, illness, disease – signals that something is not right in the body.

A sign is a signal that can be seen by someone else – maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. For example, fever, fast breathing, and abnormal lung sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

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A symptom is a signal that’s felt or noticed by the person who has it, but may not be easily seen by anyone else. For example, weakness, aching, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of pneumonia.

Having one sign or symptom may not be enough to figure out what’s causing it. For example, a rash in a child could be a sign of a number of things, such as poison ivy, measles, a skin infection, or a food allergy. But if the child has the rash along with other signs and symptoms like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a sore throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the illness. Sometimes, a patient’s signs and symptoms still don’t give the doctor enough clues to be sure what’s causing the illness. Then medical tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.

How does cancer cause signs and symptoms?

Cancer is a group of diseases that can cause almost any sign or symptom. The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects the organs or tissues. If a cancer has spread (metastasized), signs or symptoms may appear in different parts of the body.

As a cancer grows, it can begin to push on nearby organs, blood vessels, and nerves. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer. If the cancer is in a critical area, such as certain parts of the brain, even the smallest tumor can cause symptoms.

But sometimes cancer starts in places where it won’t cause any signs or symptoms until it has grown quite large. Cancers of the pancreas, for example, usually don’t cause symptoms until they grow large enough to press on nearby nerves or organs (this causes back or belly pain). Others may grow around the bile duct and block the flow of bile. This causes the eyes and skin to look yellow (jaundice). By the time a pancreatic cancer causes signs or symptoms like these, it’s usually in an advanced stage. This means it has grown and spread beyond the place it started – the pancreas.

A cancer may also cause symptoms like fever, extreme tiredness (fatigue), or weight loss. This may be because cancer cells use up much of the body’s energy supply, or they may release substances that change the way the body makes energy from food. Cancer can also cause the immune system to react in ways that produce these signs and symptoms.

Sometimes, cancer cells release substances into the bloodstream that cause symptoms that are not usually linked to cancer. For example, some cancers of the pancreas can release substances that cause blood clots in veins of the legs. Some lung cancers make hormone-like substances that raise blood calcium levels. This affects nerves and muscles, making the person feel weak and dizzy.

How are signs and symptoms helpful?

Treatment works best when cancer is found early – while it’s still small and is less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. This often means a better chance for a cure, especially if the cancer can be removed with surgery.

A good example of the importance of finding cancer early is melanoma skin cancer. It can be easy to remove if it has not grown deep into the skin. The 5-year survival rate (percentage of people who live at least 5 years after diagnosis) at this early stage is around 98%. Once melanoma has spread to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate drops to about 16%.

Sometimes people ignore symptoms. Maybe they don’t know that the symptoms could mean something is wrong. Or they might be frightened by what the symptoms could mean and 

don’t want to get medical help. Maybe they just can’t afford to get medical care.

Some symptoms, such as tiredness or coughing, are more likely caused by something other than cancer. Symptoms can seem unimportant, especially if there’s a clear cause or the problem only lasts a short time. In the same way, a person may reason that a symptom like a breast lump is probably a cyst that will go away by itself. But no symptom should be ignored or overlooked, especially if it has lasted a long time or is getting worse.

Most likely, symptoms are not caused by cancer, but it’s important to have them checked out, just in case. If cancer is not the cause, a doctor can help figure out what the cause is and treat it, if needed.

Sometimes, it’s possible to find cancer before having symptoms. The American Cancer Society and other health groups recommend cancer-related check-ups and certain tests for people even though they have no symptoms. This helps find certain cancers early, before symptoms start. For more information on early detection tests, see our document called American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer. But keep in mind, even if you have these recommended tests, it’s still important to see a doctor if you have any symptoms.

What are some general signs and symptoms of cancer?

You should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. But remember, having any of these does not mean that you have cancer – many other things cause these signs and symptoms, too. If you have any of these symptoms and they last for a long time or get worse, please see a doctor to find out what’s going on.

Unexplained weight loss

Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When you lose weight for no known reason, it’s called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung.

Fever

Fever is very common with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost all people with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.

Fatigue

Fatigue is extreme tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest. It may be an important symptom as cancer grows. But it may happen early in some cancers, like leukemia. Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss that’s not obvious. This is another way cancer can cause fatigue.

Pain

Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often, pain due to cancer means it has already spread (metastasized) from where it started.

Skin changes

Along with skin cancers, some other cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen. These signs and symptoms include:

  • Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
  • Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Reddened skin (erythema)
  • Itching (pruritis)
  • Excessive hair growth

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Signs and Symptoms of Cancer