Breast Cancer Treatment Best Hospitals in India

Overview

Breast cancer is cancer that forms within the cells of the breasts.
After Sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-article.__v20048088skin cancer, breast cancer is that the most typical cancer diagnosed in women within the us. breast {cancer|carcinoma} can occur in each men and women, however it’s far a lot of common in women.
Substantial support for breast cancer awareness and analysis funding has helped improve the screening and diagnosing and advances within the treatment of breast cancer. breast cancer survival rates have increased, and also the range of deaths steadily has been declining, that is basically attributable to variety of things like earlier detection, a brand new personalized approach to treatment and a better understanding of the disease.

What are Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

In early stages, breast cancer usually has no symptoms. As the tumor progresses, you may note the following signs:

  • Swelling in the armpit
  • Pain or tenderness in the breast
  • A lump in the breast, is often the first apparent symptom of breast cancer, breast lumps are usually painless, although some may cause a prickly sensation. Lumps are usually visible on a mammogram long before they can be seen or felt.
  • A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast which may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt
  • Any change in the contour, texture or temperature of the breast, reddish, pitted surface like the skin of an orange (called peu de orange) is symptomatic of advanced breast cancer.
  • A change in the nipple, such as an indrawn or dimpled look, itching or burning sensation, or ulceration, scaling of the nipple is symptomatic of Paget’s disease, a localized cancer.
  • Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody or of another color, usually caused by benign conditions but possibly due to cancer.

Diagnosing breast cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose breast cancer include:

  • Breast exam. Your doctor will check both of your breasts and lymph nodes in the armpit, feeling for any lumps or other abnormalities.
  • Mammogram. A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. Mammograms are commonly used to screen for breast cancer. If an abnormality is detected on a screening mammogram, your doctor may recommend a diagnostic mammogram to further evaluate that abnormality.
  • Breast ultrasound. Ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of structures deep within the body. Ultrasound may be used to determine whether a new breast lump is a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst.
  • Removing a sample of breast cells for testing (biopsy). A biopsy is the only definitive way to make a diagnosis of breast cancer. Biopsy samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis where experts determine whether the cells are cancerous. A biopsy sample is also analyzed to determine the type of cells involved in the breast cancer, the aggressiveness (grade) of the cancer, and whether the cancer cells have hormone receptors or other receptors that may influence your treatment options.
  • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI machine uses a magnet and radio waves to create pictures of the interior of your breast. Before a breast MRI, you receive an injection of dye.

Treatment Options for Breast Cancer

Usually, a multidisciplinary team of medical professionals will be involved in the treatment of breast cancer. breast-cancer-treatmentConsisting of oncologists, specialist cancer surgeon, reconstructive surgeons, specialist nurse, radiographer, radiologist & pathologist, the team may sometimes also include physical therapist, occupational therapist, psychologist & dietitian.

 

Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – This is done with the help of dye which is injected into the patient. This scan will also help doctors determine the extent of cancer. MRI also provides a useful indication of breast tumor’s response to pre-surgical chemotherapy through clinical examination.

There are some of the Best Hospitals in India for Breast Cancer Treatment :-

  1. Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital,Vasant Kunj.
  2. Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon.
  3. Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  4. Max Super Specialty Hospital,New Delhi.
  5. Jaypee Hospital, Noida

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Breast Cancer Treatment Best Hospitals in India

Prostate Cancer Surgery Best Hospitals in India

Overview-

Prostate cancer is a disease which only occurs in the prostate gland present in the male reproductive 546system and is most common among men over ages 50 years. Mostly are slow growing; however, it can grow quickly if ignored, at first it causes no symptoms but in later stages it can lead to difficulty in urinating, blood in urine or pain in the penis.

 

 

Advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer:-

Advanced or metastatic cancer of the prostate gland is when the cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed in the early stages before it starts to spread outside the prostate gland. But in some men, the prostate cancer will be advanced when it is first diagnosed. Advanced prostate cancer can also occur in men who have previously been treated for early or locally advanced prostate cancer but their cancer has come back (relapsed or recurred). Prostate cancer cells can sometimes spread beyond the prostate gland. The cancer cells may travel around the body in the bloodstream or, less commonly the lymphatic system. When these cells reach a new area of the body, they may go on dividing and form a new tumor  called a metastasis or secondary tumor.

The most common places for prostate cancer to spread are to bones such as the spine, pelvis, thigh bone (femur) and ribs. Usually, the cancer cells will spread to a number of different places in the bones rather than to a single site. Sometimes prostate cancer can affect the bone marrow. This is the spongy material that’s found in the center  of most bones. It’s also where the body’s blood cells are made.  Prostate cancer can also spread to the lymph nodes, and occasionally it may affect the lungs, the brain and the liver.

Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms:-

Prostate cancer does not normally cause symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.

This normally results in problems associated with urination. Symptoms can include:

  • needing to urinate more frequently, often during the night
  • needing to rush to the toilet
  • difficulty in starting to pee (hesitancy)
  • straining or taking a long time while urinating
  • weak flow
  • feeling that your bladder has not emptied fully

Many men′s prostates get larger as they get older due to a non-cancerous condition known as prostate enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Symptoms that the cancer may have spread include bone and back pain, a loss of appetite, pain in the testicles and unexplained weight loss.

Risk factors:-

Independent factors include:-

  • Men over 65: prostate cancer is not very common in men under 50.
  • African ancestry: Men of African ancestry have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. They have about a 60% higher rate of prostate cancer than Caucasian men. Men of African ancestry are more likely to be diagnosed at a younger age and with more aggressive and advanced tumor.
  • Family history: the risk of developing prostate cancer is higher if a first-degree relative (father or brother) has been diagnosed with the disease.A  Men are at the most risk if more than one relative has been diagnosed and if the relatives were diagnosed at a younger age.  The risk doubles if a man′s father had the disease, and if a brother had it, the risk triples; hereditary prostate cancer typically begins among a cluster of relatives before age 55.

Dependent risk factors include:-

  • High-fat diet: a diet high in fat, especially animal fat, may increase the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Exposure to cadmium: Cadmium is a metallic element known to cause cancer and is a possible risk factor for prostate cancer.

Tests and diagnosis:-

 

  • Digital rectal exam (DRE): This is an exam of the prostate via the rectum.  The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall for lumps, hardness of abnormal areas.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: This test measures the level of PSA in the blood.  PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.  PSA levels may also be high in men who have an infection or inflammation of the prostate or BPH (a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate).
  • Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS): A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. Transrectal ultrasound is used during a biopsy procedure.
  • Biopsy:  The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist. The pathologist will examine the biopsy sample to check for cancer cells and determine the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how likely it is that a tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread. There are 2 types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer.
    • Transrectal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide the needle.
    • Transperineal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate.

 

Prostate Cancer Treatment:-

Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some men (especially those who are older or who have other major health problems) might never need treatment for their cancer. Instead, their doctor may suggest approaches known as watchful waiting, expectant management, observation, or active surveillance.

Some doctors use these terms to mean the same thing. For other doctors the terms mean something slightly different:

  • Active surveillance is often used to mean watching the cancer closely with PSA blood tests, digital rectal exams (DREs), and ultrasounds at regular intervals to see if the cancer is growing. Prostate biopsies may be done as well to see if the cancer is starting to grow faster.
  • Watchful waiting (observation) is sometimes used to describe a less intense type of follow-up that may mean fewer tests and relying more on changes in a man’s symptoms to decide if treatment is needed.

Surgery for prostate cancer

Surgery is a common choice to try to cure prostate cancer if it is not thought to have spread outside the gland.The main type of surgery for prostate cancer is known as a radical prostatectomy. In this operation, the surgeon removes the entire prostate gland plus some of the tissue around it. A radical prostatectomy can be done in different ways.

Open approaches to prostatectomy

In the more traditional approach to doing a prostatectomy, the surgeon operates through a single long cut (incision) to remove the prostate and nearby tissues. This type of surgery, sometimes referred to as an open approach, is now done less often than before.

  • Radical retropubic prostatectomy: In the retropubic approach, a cut is made in the lower belly (abdomen), as shown in the picture below. The doctor will then remove the prostate and some nearby tissues. He or she can also remove nearby lymph nodes to check for cancer spread.A small tube (catheter) will be put in your penis to help drain your bladder after surgery. The catheter usually stays in place for 1 to 2 weeks while you are healing.

You will probably stay in the hospital for a few days after the surgery, and your activities will be limited for about 3 to 5 weeks.

  • Radical perineal prostatectomy: In the perineal approach, the surgeon makes the cut in the skin between the anus and the scrotum. This approach is used less often because it’s more likely to lead to erection problems and because the nearby lymph nodes can’t be removed. But it might be an option if you aren’t concerned about erections and you don’t need lymph nodes removed. It also might be used if you have other medical problems that make retropubic surgery hard to do.

The perineal approach often takes less time than the retropubic approach, and may result in less pain.A tube for draining urine (called a catheter) will be put into the bladder through the penis to drain urine for 1 to 2 weeks while you are healing.You will probably stay in the hospital for a few days after the surgery, and your activities will be limited for about 3 to 5 weeks.

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Prostate Cancer Surgery Best Hospitals in India

Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Liver Cancer or hepatic tumor could be a cancer of Liver. There are many varieties differing types|differing kinds} of tumours that may develop within the liver as liver is formed cancer-imageof various cell types. These growths is benign or malignant. Cancerous tumours will begin in liver and spread to alternative areas of your body, through your blood or your lymphatic system. This unfold of cancer is termed metastasis. Tumours can also unfold from alternative components of your body, like from your bowel, breast or lungs, to your liver.

Knowing the signs helps a doctor to create an accurate diagnosis call regarding the cancer stage and its treatment. The below-mentioned factors signal regarding cancer, and if you observe these for a extended period, consult a doctor for treatment.

Symptoms

Most people don’t have signs and symptoms in the early stages of primary liver cancer. When signs and symptoms do appear, they may include:

  • Losing weight without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • General weakness and fatigue
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Yellow discoloration of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) White, chalky stools.

Treatment overview                                           

In cancer care, differing kinds of doctors typically work along to create a patient’s overall treatment set up that combines differing kinds of treatments.. Cancer care groups also include a spread of alternative health care professionals, as well as physician assistants, medicine nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors:

  • How much of the liver is affected by the cancer
  • Whether the cancer has spread
  • The patient’s preferences and overall health
  • The damage to the remaining cancer-free area of the liver.

When a tumor is found at associate early stage and therefore the patient’s liver is functioning well, treatment is aimed at attempting to eliminate the cancer. The care arrange may additionally include treatment for symptoms and aspect effects, a very important a part of cancer care once liver cancer is found at a later stage, or the patient’s liver isn’t operating well, the patient and doctor should talk about the goals of every treatment recommendation. At now, the goals of treatment could specialize in slowing growth of the cancer and relieving symptoms to improve quality of life.

The various disease-directed treatment options can be grouped according to whether they may cure the cancer or will improve survival but will most likely not eliminate the cancer. Descriptions of the most common treatment options, both disease-directed and those aimed at managing side effects and symptoms, are listed below. Take time to learn about your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your doctor and what you can expect while receiving the treatment.

Two types of surgery are used to treat.

  • Hepatectomy :-when a portion of the liver is removed, the surgery is named a hepatectomy. A hepatectomy will be done provided that the cancer is in one a part of the liver and also the liver is functioning well. The remaining section of liver takes over the functions of the whole liver. The liver might grow back to its traditional size at intervals many weeks. A hepatectomy might not be possible if the patient has advanced cirrhosis, even if the tumour is little.

The side effects of a hepatectomy may include pain, weakness, fatigue, and temporary liver failure. The health care team will watch for signs of bleeding, infection, liver failure, or other problems that need immediate treatment.

  • Liver transplantation. Sometimes, a liver transplantation can be done. This procedure is possible only when the cancer has not spread outside the liver, a suitable donor is found, and very specific criteria are met in terms of tumor size and number. These criteria usually are a single tumor 5 cm or smaller or 3 or fewer tumors, all of which are smaller than 3 cm. It is important to understand that the number of donor livers available is very limited, so transplantation is not always an option.

After a transplant, the patient will be watched closely for signs that the body might be rejecting the new liver or that the tumor has come back. The patient must take medication to prevent rejection. These drugs can cause side effects, such as puffiness in the face, high blood pressure, or increased body hair.

Liver transplantation is a particularly effective treatment for people with a small tumor because transplantation removes the tumor and the damaged liver. However, there are few donors, and people waiting for a liver transplant may have to wait for a long time before a liver becomes available. During this time, the disease may get worse. The transplant center will advise you on how long the wait is likely to be and what rules are used to prioritize people on the waiting list.

Diagnosing liver cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver cancer include:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests may reveal liver function abnormalities.
  • Imaging tests. Your doctor may recommend imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Removing a sample of liver tissue for testing. Your doctor may recommend removing a piece of liver tissue for laboratory testing in order to make a definitive diagnosis of liver cancer.
  • Ultrasound test — The ultrasound device uses sound waves that cannot be heard by humans. The sound waves produce a pattern of echoes as they bounce off internal organs. The echoes create a picture (sonogram) of the liver and other organs in the abdomen. Tumors may produce echoes that are different from the echoes made by healthy tissues.
  • MRI — A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures are viewed on a monitor and can also be printed.
  • Angiogram — For an angiogram, the patient may be in the hospital and may have anesthesia. The doctor injects dye into an artery so that the blood vessels in the liver show up on an x-ray. The angiogram can reveal a tumor in the liver.
  • Biopsy — In some cases, the doctor may remove a sample of tissue. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue. The doctor may obtain tissue in several ways. One way is by inserting a thin needle into the liver to remove a small amount of tissue. This is called fine-needle aspiration. The doctor may use CT or ultrasound to guide the needle. Sometimes the doctor obtains a sample of tissue with a thick needle (core biopsy) or by inserting a thin, lighted tube (laparoscope) into a small incision in the abdomen. Another way is to remove tissue during an operation.

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Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Best Brain Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

A brain tumor or cancer grows once irregular cells are formed inside the region of brain. There are mainly 2 varieties of tumors like cancerous tumors and non-cancerous tumors. Cancerouscancer123 tumors could also be categorized into primary tumors that grow inside the brain itself and such tumors that spread from some totally different part recognized as brain metastasis tumors. all types of brain tumors will produce symptoms and signs that vary in keeping with the regions of the brain involved. Brain Cancer may be a illness which can be diagnosed and analysed with a thorough remedial examination. It doesn’t refer a schedule sickness since for the most conditions, it’s terribly deadly. it always happens once one form of the brain tissue loses its general options and transforms and begins multiplying to formulate an irregular lump of cells called tumor. nevertheless, not all sort of brain tumors is cancerous. Non cancerous brain tumors don’t have any threat and should be with success separated.

Types of Brain Cancer

  • Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma
  • Schwannoma
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Chordoma
  • Ptic nerve glioma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Pituitary neuroectodermal
  • Ganglioneuroma
  • Brain stem glioma
  • Pineal tumors
  • Meningioma
  • Primitive neuroectodermal
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Mixed glioma
  • Craniopharyngioma

Brain tumors can cause many symptoms. Some of the most common are

  • Headaches, often in the morning
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in your ability to talk, hear, or see
  • Problems with balance or walking
  • Problems with thinking or memory
  • Feeling weak or sleepy
  • Changes in your mood or behavior
  • Seizures

Doctors diagnose brain tumors by doing a neurologic exam and tests including an MRI, CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get a combination of treatments.

Diagnosis of Brain Tumor:-

Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) exerting a limiting control for any substance to pass. Hence, most tracers would be able reach brain tumors only with the disruption of the BBB. The disruption of the BBB (blood-brain-barrier) can be detected by a MRI and CT.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s brain-tumorgeneral health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s general health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Surgery as the way of Treatment

Surgery is normally the exclusion of the cancerous tumor and adjoining tissues during the process of operation. There are several sorts of surgery available for brain cancer, and the most helpful option frequently depends on the phase and malignancy of the brain cancer.

Additional treatment options for high-grade tumors include:

  • Radiation therapy: X-rays and other forms of radiation can destroy tumor cells or delay tumor growth.
  • Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to kill rapidly dividing cells. It can be taken orally or intravenously.
  • Targeted therapy: The focus on a specific element of a cell, such as molecules or pathways required for cell growth, in order to use them as a target.
  • Tumor Treating Fields: (A wearable device) locally or regionally delivered treatment that produces electric fields to disrupt the rapid cell division exhibited by cancer cells by creating alternating, “wave-like” electric fields that travel across their region of usage in different directions. Because structures within dividing cells have an electric charge, they interact with these electric fields.

Best brain cancer hospitals in India are as follows:

  • Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Chennai
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Bangalore
  • Jaypee Hospital, Noida

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Best Brain Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

 

What are signs and symptoms?

Signs and symptoms are both signals of injury, illness, disease – signals that something is not right in the body.

A sign is a signal that can be seen by someone else – maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. For example, fever, fast breathing, and abnormal lung sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

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A symptom is a signal that’s felt or noticed by the person who has it, but may not be easily seen by anyone else. For example, weakness, aching, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of pneumonia.

Having one sign or symptom may not be enough to figure out what’s causing it. For example, a rash in a child could be a sign of a number of things, such as poison ivy, measles, a skin infection, or a food allergy. But if the child has the rash along with other signs and symptoms like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a sore throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the illness. Sometimes, a patient’s signs and symptoms still don’t give the doctor enough clues to be sure what’s causing the illness. Then medical tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.

How does cancer cause signs and symptoms?

Cancer is a group of diseases that can cause almost any sign or symptom. The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects the organs or tissues. If a cancer has spread (metastasized), signs or symptoms may appear in different parts of the body.

As a cancer grows, it can begin to push on nearby organs, blood vessels, and nerves. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer. If the cancer is in a critical area, such as certain parts of the brain, even the smallest tumor can cause symptoms.

But sometimes cancer starts in places where it won’t cause any signs or symptoms until it has grown quite large. Cancers of the pancreas, for example, usually don’t cause symptoms until they grow large enough to press on nearby nerves or organs (this causes back or belly pain). Others may grow around the bile duct and block the flow of bile. This causes the eyes and skin to look yellow (jaundice). By the time a pancreatic cancer causes signs or symptoms like these, it’s usually in an advanced stage. This means it has grown and spread beyond the place it started – the pancreas.

A cancer may also cause symptoms like fever, extreme tiredness (fatigue), or weight loss. This may be because cancer cells use up much of the body’s energy supply, or they may release substances that change the way the body makes energy from food. Cancer can also cause the immune system to react in ways that produce these signs and symptoms.

Sometimes, cancer cells release substances into the bloodstream that cause symptoms that are not usually linked to cancer. For example, some cancers of the pancreas can release substances that cause blood clots in veins of the legs. Some lung cancers make hormone-like substances that raise blood calcium levels. This affects nerves and muscles, making the person feel weak and dizzy.

How are signs and symptoms helpful?

Treatment works best when cancer is found early – while it’s still small and is less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. This often means a better chance for a cure, especially if the cancer can be removed with surgery.

A good example of the importance of finding cancer early is melanoma skin cancer. It can be easy to remove if it has not grown deep into the skin. The 5-year survival rate (percentage of people who live at least 5 years after diagnosis) at this early stage is around 98%. Once melanoma has spread to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate drops to about 16%.

Sometimes people ignore symptoms. Maybe they don’t know that the symptoms could mean something is wrong. Or they might be frightened by what the symptoms could mean and 

don’t want to get medical help. Maybe they just can’t afford to get medical care.

Some symptoms, such as tiredness or coughing, are more likely caused by something other than cancer. Symptoms can seem unimportant, especially if there’s a clear cause or the problem only lasts a short time. In the same way, a person may reason that a symptom like a breast lump is probably a cyst that will go away by itself. But no symptom should be ignored or overlooked, especially if it has lasted a long time or is getting worse.

Most likely, symptoms are not caused by cancer, but it’s important to have them checked out, just in case. If cancer is not the cause, a doctor can help figure out what the cause is and treat it, if needed.

Sometimes, it’s possible to find cancer before having symptoms. The American Cancer Society and other health groups recommend cancer-related check-ups and certain tests for people even though they have no symptoms. This helps find certain cancers early, before symptoms start. For more information on early detection tests, see our document called American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer. But keep in mind, even if you have these recommended tests, it’s still important to see a doctor if you have any symptoms.

What are some general signs and symptoms of cancer?

You should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. But remember, having any of these does not mean that you have cancer – many other things cause these signs and symptoms, too. If you have any of these symptoms and they last for a long time or get worse, please see a doctor to find out what’s going on.

Unexplained weight loss

Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When you lose weight for no known reason, it’s called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung.

Fever

Fever is very common with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost all people with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.

Fatigue

Fatigue is extreme tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest. It may be an important symptom as cancer grows. But it may happen early in some cancers, like leukemia. Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss that’s not obvious. This is another way cancer can cause fatigue.

Pain

Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often, pain due to cancer means it has already spread (metastasized) from where it started.

Skin changes

Along with skin cancers, some other cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen. These signs and symptoms include:

  • Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
  • Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Reddened skin (erythema)
  • Itching (pruritis)
  • Excessive hair growth

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Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

Best Prostate Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India

What Means Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is that the cancer that happens in prostate gland in men. prostate gland is accountable to transfers sperm. it’s one amongst the foremost common kinds of cancer. cost-of-prostate-cancer-treatment-in-indiaThe cancer sometimes grows slowly and confined to the gland whereas it’s going to spread resulting in advanced stage. If the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, it will be treated with success.

 

 

 

Risk factors for the prostate cancer

Age – Prostate cancer is rare in men under 40 years of age and the risk increases rapidly as a man reaches 50 years of age.
Family history – Men who have a family history of prostate cancer (father or brother)have a higher chance of developing it themselves. The risk is more in case of an effected brother than father.
Genes – Inherited mutated genes form a small number of cases.
Smoking – It can not only increase the chances of prostate cancer but also slightly increase the risk of death due to prostate cancer.
Inflammation and Infections (prostatitis) can also increase the chance of one getting prostate cancer.
High fat diet and obesity have also been shown to put men at high risk of prostate cancer.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer.

Frequency – urinating much more often than normal.
Urgency – having a sensation that you need to urinate immediately.
Nocturia – getting up to urinate multiple times during the night.
Hesitancy – difficulty starting the urine stream. Other less common symptoms can be blood in urine, blood with semen, impotence, bone pain in back, hips or ribs and loss of bladder control.

Diagnosis & Tests

How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?

Two initial tests are commonly used to look for prostate cancer in the absence of any symptoms. One is the digital rectal exam, in which a doctor feels the prostate through the rectum to find hard or lumpy areas known as nodules. The other is a blood test used to detect a substance made by the prostate called “prostate-specific antigen” (PSA). When used together, these tests can detect abnormalities that might suggest prostate cancer.

Neither of these initial tests for prostate cancer is perfect. Many men with a mildly elevated PSA do not have prostate cancer, and men with prostate cancer may have normal levels of PSA. Also, the digital rectal exam does not detect all prostate cancers, as it can only assess the back portion of the prostate gland.

The diagnosis can only be confirmed by examining prostate cells under a microscope. This is done by performing a biopsy in a urologist’s office. A small sample of tissue is taken from the prostate for testing and evaluation under a microscope.

Your doctor is likely to discuss your medical history with you. Answering questions about any history of genital or urinary disease in your family can help your doctor make an accurate diagnosis. Your doctor may also ask about any changes in your pattern of urinating.

Prostate Cancer – Treatment

Different doctors are usually involved in the treatment of prostate cancer (urologist, radiation oncologist, medical oncologist). These specialists discuss prostate cancer cases in so call tumor boards.
Several factors will be considered for each patient’s individual treatment plan:

  • size of the tumor
  • whether it is limited to the prostate or has already spread
  • aggressiveness of the tumor
  • age and general life expectancy of the patient
  • other diseases and tumor associated symptoms

Prevention of prostate cancer

No exact method to prevent prostate cancer is known. To lower the risk of prostate cancer one must be watchful of the weight, include fruits and vegetables in diet especially (tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, soy, beans, and other legumes) or fish, exercise regularly and include Vitamin E supplements in consultation with a medical practitioner.

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Best Prostate Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India

Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

What Is Liver Cancer?

The liver continuously filters blood that circulates through the body, converting nutrients and drugs absorbed from the digestive tract into ready-to-use chemicalscancer-image. The liver performs many other important functions, such as removing toxins and other chemical waste products from the blood and readying them for excretion. Because all the blood in the body must pass through it, the liver is unusually accessible to cancer cells traveling in the bloodstream.

 

What causes liver cancer?

Many factors may play a role in the development of cancer. Because the liver filters blood from all parts of the body, cancer cells from elsewhere can lodge in the liver and start to grow. Cancers that begin in the gut often spread to the liver. The ability of the liver to regenerate may also be linked to the development of liver cancers.

How are liver cancers classified?

There are many types of liver tumours, only some of which are cancers. The most important classification is whether the tumours are benign (relatively harmless) or malignant (capable of spreading from the liver and thus more serious)

Benign Tumours 

Hemangioma is the most common type of benign liver tumour. It is an abnormal growth of blood vessels of the liver that begins in the fetus. More than 10% of the normal population has hemanigomas in the liver. Most people with hemangiomas have no symptoms and require no treatment. Some hemangiomas may rarely enlarge and bleed in which case they may require surgical removal.

Hepatic adenomas are benign tumours of liver cells. Most do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment. However, if they are large they may cause pain or blood loss and may need to be removed. Hepatic adenomas occur more frequently in women and seem to be triggered in some cases by the birth control pill or by pregnancy.

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a tumour-like growth of several cell types. Although FNH tumours are benign, it can be hard to distinguish them from liver cancers.

Malignant Tumours 

The most common form of primary liver cancer (cancer that starts in the liver) in adults is called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is a cancer of liver cells. This type of cancer can have different growth patterns. Some begin as a single tumour that grows larger. It may spread to other parts of the liver in later stages of the disease.

Liver cancer may also develop in more than one site in the liver and may grow into multiple tumours. This pattern is most often seen in people with liver cirrhosis.

Another liver cancer is called cholangiocarcinoma. It originates in the small bile ducts which are tubes that carry bile to the gall bladder. Most often, however, when cancer occurs in the liver, it did not start there, but spread to the liver from a cancer that began somewhere else in the body. These types of cancers are named after the place where they began (primary site) and are considered secondary liver cancers or cancer metastases.

What are the risk factors associated with liver cancer?

  • In the absence of chronic liver disease liver cancer is rare. However, in patients with underlying liver disease, liver cancer may be quite common. The exact cause of liver cancer is not known. Scientists have identified many risk factors that can make someone more likely to develop liver cancer:
  • Among those with chronic liver disease, men are more likely to develop liver cancer than are women. The reason for this is unknown.
  • Viral infectionof the liver: Chronic infection with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C may lead to the development of cancer.
  • Certain types of inherited liver disease such ashemochromatosis, which results in accumulation of too much iron in the liver, as well as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and tyrosinemia can lead to the development of liver cancer later in life.
  • Cirrhosis is the formation of scar tissue in the liver. This can often lead to cancer. Major causes of liver cirrhosis are alcohol use, chronic hepatitis B and C, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Most causes of cirrhosis are also associated with the development of liver cancer.
  • Alcohol: excessive alcohol use is a known risk factor for development of alcoholic cirrhosis and liver cancer.
  • Obesity increases the risk of liver cancer in those patients in whom it causes liver disease.
  • Tobacco use increases the risk of liver cancer if you already have chronic liver disease.
  • Anabolic steroids: long-term use of anabolic steroids can increase the risk of liver cancer.

What are the symptoms of liver cancer?

In the early stages, liver cancer does not cause symptoms. Some common symptoms of advanced liver cancer include:

  • weight loss
  • loss of appetite
  • abdominal pain
  • jaundice
  • fluid in the abdomen (ascites)

How is liver cancer detected?

Liver-Imaging

  • ultrasound
  • blood testto check for increased levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • computer tomography scan (CT)
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Which treatments are used for liver cancer?

In creating your treatment plan, important factors to consider include the stage (extent) of the cancer and the health of the rest of your liver. But you and your cancer care team will also want to take into account the possible side effects of treatment, your overall health, and the chances of curing the disease, extending life, or relieving symptoms. Based on these factors, your treatment options may include:

  • Surgery (partial hepatectomy or liver transplant)
  • Tumor ablation
  • Tumor embolization
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy

Which doctors treat liver cancer?

Depending on your situation, you may have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors may include:

  • A surgeon: a doctor who treats diseases with surgery.
  • A radiation oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with radiation therapy.
  • A medical oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy.
  • A gastroenterologist: a doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the digestive system, including the liver.

Many other specialists may be involved in your care as well, including nurse practitioners, nurses, nutrition specialists, social workers, and other health professionals.

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Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India