Best Knee Replacement Surgery Hospitals in India

What is Knee Replacement Surgery?

Knee replacement surgery is a procedure that decreases the pain and improves the quality of life.knee-replacement-surgery3 During total joint replacement surgery, the worn-out surfaces of the joint are removed/shaved off and replaced with implants. The femoral(thigh bone) and tibial(leg bone) component is made up of a metal alloy that covers the end of these bones. The insert/spacer that is put between the two metal components serves as a cushion, a smooth gliding surface between the two.

The patella (knee cap) is resurfaced with a special polyethylene.

Knee joint is the most complicated joint of the body. It consists of three components junction of three bones: the patella (knee cap), distal femoral condyles(thigh bone) and the proximal tibial plateau(leg bone). The ends are covered with articular cartilage- an elastic material that allows the knee to move freely. If damaged, the cartilage cannot repair itself.

INDICATIONS OF TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

  • Ostheoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Post traumatic Arthritis
  • Gouty arthritis
  • Pain in Deformed Knee

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis most commonly referred to as the wear and tear of the joint usually affects the elderly and middle age to elderly people.

In osteoarthritis the cartilage between the joint breaks down.

CAUSES

  • Older age
  • Obesity
  • Previous traumatic joint injury/overuse of joints
  • Joint deformity

What are the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis?

  • Pain in and around the joint
  • Stiffness
  • Difficulty in squatting and sitting crossed leg
  • Difficulty in negotiating stairs
  • Deformities of the joint
  • Inability to walk for long distances
  • Joint swelling
  • Decreased movement of the joint

HOW TO DIAGNOSE?

  • History and clinical examination
  • Standing X rays of the knee joint
  • Some patients may knee CT Scan/ MRI

Who are the right candidates for Knee Replacement Surgery?

The surgical treatment becomes an option in severe cases and the medical treatment fails.

Medical Treatment includes:

  • Activity modification.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Joint injections

Surgical Indications are:

  • When the medical treatment fails to relieve the pain.
  • There is severe deformity of the joint so much so that it affects the daily activities of the patient.
  • There is instability of the knee joint.
  • There is decreased range of motion of the joint.

How you prepare

An orthopedic surgeon performs knee replacement procedures. Before the procedure, the surgeon takes your medical history and performs a physical examination to assess your knee’s range of motion, stability and strength. X-rays can help determine the extent of knee damage.knee-replacement-surgery-banner-1

Knee replacement surgery requires anesthesia to make you comfortable during surgery. Your input and personal preference help the team decide whether to use general anesthesia, which makes you unconscious, or spinal or epidural anesthesia, which leaves you awake but unable to feel pain from your waist down.

Your doctor or anesthesiologist might advise you to stop taking certain medications and dietary supplements before your surgery. You’ll likely be instructed not to eat anything after midnight before your surgery.

Plan for your recovery

For several weeks after the procedure, you might need to use crutches or a walker. Make arrangements for transportation home from the hospital and help with everyday tasks, such as cooking, bathing and doing laundry. If you live alone, your surgeon’s staff or hospital discharge planner can suggest a temporary caretaker.

To make your home safer and easier to navigate during recovery, consider making the following improvements:

  • Create a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult.
  • Install safety bars or a secure handrail in your shower or bath.
  • Secure stairway handrails.
  • Get a stable chair with a firm seat cushion and back, and a footstool to elevate your leg.
  • Arrange for a toilet-seat riser with arms if you have a low toilet.
  • Try a stable bench or chair for your shower.
  • Remove loose rugs and cords.

Results

  • For most people, knee replacement provides pain relief, improved mobility and a better quality of life. Talk with your doctor about what you can expect from knee replacement surgery.
  • Three to six weeks after surgery, you generally can resume most daily activities, such as shopping and light housekeeping. Driving is also possible at around three weeks if you can bend your knee far enough to sit in a car and if you have enough muscle control to operate the brakes and accelerator.
  • After you’ve recovered, you can enjoy a variety of low-impact activities, such as walking, swimming, golfing or biking. But you should avoid higher impact activities — such as jogging, skiing, tennis and sports that involve contact or jumping. Talk to your doctor about your limitations.

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Best Knee Replacement Surgery Hospitals in India

Best Hospitals for Brain Cancer in India

A brain tumor or cancer grows once irregular cells are formed inside the region of brain. There are mainly 2 varieties of tumors like cancerous tumors and non-cancerous tumors. Cancerous tumors could also be categorized into primary tumors that grow inside the brain itself and such tumors that spread from some totally different part recognized as brain metastasis tumors. all types of brain tumors will produce symptoms and signs that vary in keeping with the regions of the brain involved. Brain Cancer may be a illness which can be diagnosed and analysed with a thorough remedial examination. It doesn’t refer a schedule sickness since for the most conditions, it’s terribly deadly. it always happens once one form of the brain tissue loses its general options and transforms and begins multiplying to formulate an irregular lump of cells called tumor. nevertheless, not all sort of brain tumors is cancerous. Non cancerous brain tumors don’t have any threat and should be with success separated.

Types of Brain Cancer

  • Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma
  • Schwannoma
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Chordoma
  • Ptic nerve glioma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Pituitary neuroectodermal
  • Ganglioneuroma
  • Brain stem glioma
  • Pineal tumors
  • Meningioma
  • Primitive neuroectodermal
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Mixed glioma
  • Craniopharyngioma

Other symptoms for Brain Cancer can include:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Difficulty speaking or remembering words
  • Disturbed vision, hearing, smell or taste
  • General irritability or a change in personality – this is sometimes noticed only by family or friends
  • Drowsiness

Diagnosis of Brain Tumor:-

Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) exerting a limiting control for any substance to pass. Hence, most tracers would be able reach brain tumors only with the disruption of the BBB. The disruption of the BBB (blood-brain-barrier) can be detected by a MRI and CT.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s general health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Surgery as the way of Treatment

Surgery is normally the exclusion of the cancerous tumor and adjoining tissues during the process of operation. There are several sorts of surgery available for brain cancer, and the most helpful option frequently depends on the phase and malignancy of the brain cancer.

Additional treatment options for high-grade tumors include:

  • Radiation therapy: X-rays and other forms of radiation can destroy tumor cells or delay tumor growth.
  • Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to kill rapidly dividing cells. It can be taken orally or intravenously.
  • Targeted therapy: The focus on a specific element of a cell, such as molecules or pathways required for cell growth, in order to use them as a target.
  • Tumor Treating Fields: (A wearable device) locally or regionally delivered treatment that produces electric fields to disrupt the rapid cell division exhibited by cancer cells by creating alternating, “wave-like” electric fields that travel across their region of usage in different directions. Because structures within dividing cells have an electric charge, they interact with these electric fields.

Best brain cancer hospitals in India are as follows:

  • Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Chennai
  • Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
  • Jaypee Hospital, Noida
  • Max Hospital, Delhi

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Best Hospitals for Brain Cancer in India

Breast Cancer Treatment Best Hospitals in India

Overview

Breast cancer is cancer that forms within the cells of the breasts.
After Sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-article.__v20048088skin cancer, breast cancer is that the most typical cancer diagnosed in women within the us. breast {cancer|carcinoma} can occur in each men and women, however it’s far a lot of common in women.
Substantial support for breast cancer awareness and analysis funding has helped improve the screening and diagnosing and advances within the treatment of breast cancer. breast cancer survival rates have increased, and also the range of deaths steadily has been declining, that is basically attributable to variety of things like earlier detection, a brand new personalized approach to treatment and a better understanding of the disease.

What are Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

In early stages, breast cancer usually has no symptoms. As the tumor progresses, you may note the following signs:

  • Swelling in the armpit
  • Pain or tenderness in the breast
  • A lump in the breast, is often the first apparent symptom of breast cancer, breast lumps are usually painless, although some may cause a prickly sensation. Lumps are usually visible on a mammogram long before they can be seen or felt.
  • A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast which may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt
  • Any change in the contour, texture or temperature of the breast, reddish, pitted surface like the skin of an orange (called peu de orange) is symptomatic of advanced breast cancer.
  • A change in the nipple, such as an indrawn or dimpled look, itching or burning sensation, or ulceration, scaling of the nipple is symptomatic of Paget’s disease, a localized cancer.
  • Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody or of another color, usually caused by benign conditions but possibly due to cancer.

Diagnosing breast cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose breast cancer include:

  • Breast exam. Your doctor will check both of your breasts and lymph nodes in the armpit, feeling for any lumps or other abnormalities.
  • Mammogram. A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. Mammograms are commonly used to screen for breast cancer. If an abnormality is detected on a screening mammogram, your doctor may recommend a diagnostic mammogram to further evaluate that abnormality.
  • Breast ultrasound. Ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of structures deep within the body. Ultrasound may be used to determine whether a new breast lump is a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst.
  • Removing a sample of breast cells for testing (biopsy). A biopsy is the only definitive way to make a diagnosis of breast cancer. Biopsy samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis where experts determine whether the cells are cancerous. A biopsy sample is also analyzed to determine the type of cells involved in the breast cancer, the aggressiveness (grade) of the cancer, and whether the cancer cells have hormone receptors or other receptors that may influence your treatment options.
  • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI machine uses a magnet and radio waves to create pictures of the interior of your breast. Before a breast MRI, you receive an injection of dye.

Treatment Options for Breast Cancer

Usually, a multidisciplinary team of medical professionals will be involved in the treatment of breast cancer. breast-cancer-treatmentConsisting of oncologists, specialist cancer surgeon, reconstructive surgeons, specialist nurse, radiographer, radiologist & pathologist, the team may sometimes also include physical therapist, occupational therapist, psychologist & dietitian.

 

Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – This is done with the help of dye which is injected into the patient. This scan will also help doctors determine the extent of cancer. MRI also provides a useful indication of breast tumor’s response to pre-surgical chemotherapy through clinical examination.

There are some of the Best Hospitals in India for Breast Cancer Treatment :-

  1. Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital,Vasant Kunj.
  2. Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon.
  3. Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  4. Max Super Specialty Hospital,New Delhi.
  5. Jaypee Hospital, Noida

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MyMedOpinion.com  affiliated   Best hospitals in India provide an medical opinion from experienced surgeons and the treatment cost includes companion stay  , surgeon fee, medicines and consumables, nursing care, patient’s food and airport pick up & drop etc. etc. We offer free, no obligation assistance to international patients to find world class medical treatment in India. We offer support and services to facilitate the care you require. We can help you find the best hospital in India

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Breast Cancer Treatment Best Hospitals in India

Best Pediatric Heart Surgery Hospitals in India

Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that need surgery. The surgery is needed for the child’s well being.

Description

The news that your kid needs heart surgery isn’t easy to listen to. we tend to understand that you simply can have several queries and concerns about the surgical process and what you’ll expect.  The expert cardiac surgeons and specially-trained staff at Sacred Heart Children’s Hospital can support your family through every turn.
Our pediatric cardiac surgeons are highly regarded for his or her experience in a very broad vary of congenital repairs.pediatric-heart-surgery-1
Your child’s viscus surgery are going to be performed by pediatric cardiac surgeons in one in all the nation’s most advanced surgery centers. Providence Sacred Heart could be a leader within the treatment of heart disease and our extremely trained team offers a wealth of experience in traditional procedures, still as innovative techniques.
As a partner in your child’s cardiac care, we are going to work closely together with your referring physician to help ensure coordinated care throughout your lodge in the hospital and once you come back home.

Why the Procedure is Performed

Some heart defects need repair soon after birth. For others, it is better to wait months or years. Certain heart defects may not need to be repaired.

In general, symptoms that indicate that surgery is needed are:

  • Blue or gray skin, lips, and nail beds (cyanosis). These symptoms mean there is not enough oxygen in the blood (hypoxia).
  • Difficulty breathing because the lungs are “wet,” congested, or filled with fluid (heart failure).
  • Problems with heart rate or heart rhythm (arrhythmias).
  • Poor feeding or sleeping, and lack of growth and development of the child.

Risks for any surgery are:

  • Bleeding during surgery or in the days after surgery
  • Bad reactions to medicines
  • Problems breathing
  • Infection

Additional risks of heart surgery are:

  • Blood clots (thrombi)
  • Air bubbles (air emboli)
  • Pneumonia
  • Heartbeat problems (arrhythmias)
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke

Before the Procedure

If your child is talking, tell them about the surgery. If you have a preschool-aged child, tell them the day before what will happen. Say, for example, “We are going to the hospital to stay for a few days. The doctor is going to do an operation on your heart to make it work better.”

If your child is older, start talking about the procedure 1 week before the surgery. You should involve the child’s life specialist (someone who helps children and their families during times like major surgery) and show the child the hospital and surgical areas.

Your child may need many different tests:

  • Blood tests (complete blood count, electrolytes, clotting factors, and “cross match”)
  • X-rays of the chest
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG, or ECG)
  • Echocardiogram (ECHO, or ultrasound of the heart)
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • History and physical

Always tell your child’s health care provider what medicines your child is taking. Include drugs, herbs, and vitamins you bought without a prescription.

During the days before the surgery:

  • If your child is taking blood thinners (drugs that make it hard for blood to clot), such as warfarin (Coumadin) or heparin, talk with your child’s provider about when to stop giving these drugs to the child.
  • Ask which drugs the child should still take on the day of the surgery.

On the day of the surgery:

  • Your child will most often be asked not to drink or eat anything after midnight the night before the surgery.
  • Give your child any drugs you have been told to give with a small sip of water.
  • You will be told when to arrive at the hospital.

After the Procedure

Most children who have open-heart surgery need to stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 2 to 4 days right after surgery. They most often stay in the hospital for 5 to 7 more days after they leave the ICU. Stays in the intensive care unit and the hospital are often shorter for people who have closed-heart surgery.

During their time in the ICU, your child will have:

  • A tube in the airway (endotracheal tube) and a respirator to help with breathing. Your child will be kept sleeping (sedated) while on the respirator.
  • One or more small tubes in a vein (IV line) to give fluids and medicines.
  • A small tube in an artery (arterial line).
  • One or 2 chest tubes to drain air, blood, and fluid from the chest cavity.
  • A tube through the nose into the stomach (nasogastric tube) to empty the stomach and deliver medicines and feedings for several days.
  • A tube in the bladder to drain and measure the urine for several days.
  • Many electrical lines and tubes used to monitor the child.

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Best Pediatric Heart Surgery Hospitals in India

Prostate Cancer Surgery Best Hospitals in India

Overview-

Prostate cancer is a disease which only occurs in the prostate gland present in the male reproductive 546system and is most common among men over ages 50 years. Mostly are slow growing; however, it can grow quickly if ignored, at first it causes no symptoms but in later stages it can lead to difficulty in urinating, blood in urine or pain in the penis.

 

 

Advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer:-

Advanced or metastatic cancer of the prostate gland is when the cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed in the early stages before it starts to spread outside the prostate gland. But in some men, the prostate cancer will be advanced when it is first diagnosed. Advanced prostate cancer can also occur in men who have previously been treated for early or locally advanced prostate cancer but their cancer has come back (relapsed or recurred). Prostate cancer cells can sometimes spread beyond the prostate gland. The cancer cells may travel around the body in the bloodstream or, less commonly the lymphatic system. When these cells reach a new area of the body, they may go on dividing and form a new tumor  called a metastasis or secondary tumor.

The most common places for prostate cancer to spread are to bones such as the spine, pelvis, thigh bone (femur) and ribs. Usually, the cancer cells will spread to a number of different places in the bones rather than to a single site. Sometimes prostate cancer can affect the bone marrow. This is the spongy material that’s found in the center  of most bones. It’s also where the body’s blood cells are made.  Prostate cancer can also spread to the lymph nodes, and occasionally it may affect the lungs, the brain and the liver.

Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms:-

Prostate cancer does not normally cause symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.

This normally results in problems associated with urination. Symptoms can include:

  • needing to urinate more frequently, often during the night
  • needing to rush to the toilet
  • difficulty in starting to pee (hesitancy)
  • straining or taking a long time while urinating
  • weak flow
  • feeling that your bladder has not emptied fully

Many men′s prostates get larger as they get older due to a non-cancerous condition known as prostate enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Symptoms that the cancer may have spread include bone and back pain, a loss of appetite, pain in the testicles and unexplained weight loss.

Risk factors:-

Independent factors include:-

  • Men over 65: prostate cancer is not very common in men under 50.
  • African ancestry: Men of African ancestry have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. They have about a 60% higher rate of prostate cancer than Caucasian men. Men of African ancestry are more likely to be diagnosed at a younger age and with more aggressive and advanced tumor.
  • Family history: the risk of developing prostate cancer is higher if a first-degree relative (father or brother) has been diagnosed with the disease.A  Men are at the most risk if more than one relative has been diagnosed and if the relatives were diagnosed at a younger age.  The risk doubles if a man′s father had the disease, and if a brother had it, the risk triples; hereditary prostate cancer typically begins among a cluster of relatives before age 55.

Dependent risk factors include:-

  • High-fat diet: a diet high in fat, especially animal fat, may increase the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Exposure to cadmium: Cadmium is a metallic element known to cause cancer and is a possible risk factor for prostate cancer.

Tests and diagnosis:-

 

  • Digital rectal exam (DRE): This is an exam of the prostate via the rectum.  The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall for lumps, hardness of abnormal areas.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: This test measures the level of PSA in the blood.  PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.  PSA levels may also be high in men who have an infection or inflammation of the prostate or BPH (a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate).
  • Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS): A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. Transrectal ultrasound is used during a biopsy procedure.
  • Biopsy:  The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist. The pathologist will examine the biopsy sample to check for cancer cells and determine the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how likely it is that a tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread. There are 2 types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer.
    • Transrectal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide the needle.
    • Transperineal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate.

 

Prostate Cancer Treatment:-

Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some men (especially those who are older or who have other major health problems) might never need treatment for their cancer. Instead, their doctor may suggest approaches known as watchful waiting, expectant management, observation, or active surveillance.

Some doctors use these terms to mean the same thing. For other doctors the terms mean something slightly different:

  • Active surveillance is often used to mean watching the cancer closely with PSA blood tests, digital rectal exams (DREs), and ultrasounds at regular intervals to see if the cancer is growing. Prostate biopsies may be done as well to see if the cancer is starting to grow faster.
  • Watchful waiting (observation) is sometimes used to describe a less intense type of follow-up that may mean fewer tests and relying more on changes in a man’s symptoms to decide if treatment is needed.

Surgery for prostate cancer

Surgery is a common choice to try to cure prostate cancer if it is not thought to have spread outside the gland.The main type of surgery for prostate cancer is known as a radical prostatectomy. In this operation, the surgeon removes the entire prostate gland plus some of the tissue around it. A radical prostatectomy can be done in different ways.

Open approaches to prostatectomy

In the more traditional approach to doing a prostatectomy, the surgeon operates through a single long cut (incision) to remove the prostate and nearby tissues. This type of surgery, sometimes referred to as an open approach, is now done less often than before.

  • Radical retropubic prostatectomy: In the retropubic approach, a cut is made in the lower belly (abdomen), as shown in the picture below. The doctor will then remove the prostate and some nearby tissues. He or she can also remove nearby lymph nodes to check for cancer spread.A small tube (catheter) will be put in your penis to help drain your bladder after surgery. The catheter usually stays in place for 1 to 2 weeks while you are healing.

You will probably stay in the hospital for a few days after the surgery, and your activities will be limited for about 3 to 5 weeks.

  • Radical perineal prostatectomy: In the perineal approach, the surgeon makes the cut in the skin between the anus and the scrotum. This approach is used less often because it’s more likely to lead to erection problems and because the nearby lymph nodes can’t be removed. But it might be an option if you aren’t concerned about erections and you don’t need lymph nodes removed. It also might be used if you have other medical problems that make retropubic surgery hard to do.

The perineal approach often takes less time than the retropubic approach, and may result in less pain.A tube for draining urine (called a catheter) will be put into the bladder through the penis to drain urine for 1 to 2 weeks while you are healing.You will probably stay in the hospital for a few days after the surgery, and your activities will be limited for about 3 to 5 weeks.

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Prostate Cancer Surgery Best Hospitals in India

Hip Replacement Surgery Best hospital in India

What Is a Hip Replacement?

Hip replacement, or arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the diseased parts of thehip254 hip joint are removed and replaced with new, artificial parts. These artificial parts are called the prosthesis. The goals of hip replacement surgery include increasing mobility, improving the function of the hip joint, and relieving pain.

 

Who Should Have Hip Replacement Surgery?

People with hip joint damage that causes pain and interferes with daily activities despite treatment may be candidates for hip replacement surgery. Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of this type of damage. However, other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (a chronic inflammatory disease that causes joint pain, stiffness, and swelling), osteonecrosis (or avascular necrosis, which is the death of bone caused by insufficient blood supply), injury, fracture, and bone tumors also may lead to breakdown of the hip joint and the need for hip replacement surgery.

What Does Hip Replacement Surgery Involve?

The hip joint is located where the upper end of the femur, or thigh bone, meets the pelvis, or hip bone. A ball at the end of the femur, called the femoral head, fits in a socket (the acetabulum) in the pelvis to allow a wide range of motion.

During a traditional hip replacement, which lasts from 1 to 2 hours, the surgeon makes a 6- to 8-inch incision over the side of the hip through the muscles and removes the diseased bone tissue and cartilage from the hip joint, while leaving the healthy parts of the joint intact. Then the surgeon replaces the head of the femur and acetabulum with new, artificial parts. The new hip is made of materials that allow a natural gliding motion of the joint.

Some surgeons perform what is called a minimally invasive, or mini-incision, hip replacement, which requires smaller incisions and a shorter recovery time than traditional hip replacement. Candidates for this type of surgery are usually age 50 or younger, of normal weight based on body mass index, and healthier than candidates for traditional surgery. Joint resurfacing is also being used.

Regardless of whether you have traditional or minimally invasive surgery, the parts used to replace the joint are the same and come in two general varieties: cemented and uncemented.

Cemented parts are fastened to existing, healthy bone with a special glue or cement. Hip replacement using these parts is referred to as a “cemented” procedure. Uncemented parts rely on a process called biologic fixation, which holds them in place. This means that the parts are made with a porous surface that allows your own bone to grow into the pores and hold the new parts in place. Sometimes a doctor will use a cemented femur part and uncemented acetabular part. This combination is referred to as a hybrid replacement.

How to Prepare for Surgery and Recovery.

People can do many things before and after they have surgery to make everyday tasks easier and help speed their recovery.

Before Surgery

  • Learn what to expect. Request information written for patients from the doctor, or contact one of the organizations listed near the end of this publication.
  • Arrange for someone to help you around the house for a week or two after coming home from the hospital.
  • Arrange for transportation to and from the hospital.
  • Set up a “recovery station” at home. Place the television remote control, radio, telephone, medicine, tissues, wastebasket, and pitcher and glass next to the spot where you will spend the most time while you recover.
  • Place items you use every day at arm’s level to avoid reaching up or bending down.
  • Stock up on kitchen supplies and prepare food in advance, such as frozen casseroles or soups that can be reheated and served easily.

After Surgery

  • Follow the doctor’s instructions.
  • Work with a physical therapist or other health care professional to rehabilitate your hip.
  • Wear an apron for carrying things around the house. This leaves hands and arms free for balance or to use crutches.
  • Use a long-handled “reacher” to turn on lights or grab things that are beyond arm’s length. Hospital personnel may provide one of these or suggest where to buy one.

What Types of Exercise Are Most Suitable for Someone With a Total Hip Replacement?

Proper exercise can reduce stiffness and increase flexibility and muscle strength. People who have an artificial hip should talk to their doctor or physical therapist about developing an appropriate exercise program. Most of these programs begin with safe range-of-motion activities and muscle-strengthening exercises. The doctor or therapist will decide when you can move on to more demanding activities. Many doctors recommend avoiding high-impact activities, such as basketball, jogging, and tennis. These activities can damage the new hip or cause loosening of its parts. Some recommended exercises are walking, stationary bicycling, swimming, and cross-country skiing. These exercises can increase muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness without injuring the new hip.

 

Hip Replacement Surgery Best hospital in India

Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Liver Cancer or hepatic tumor could be a cancer of Liver. There are many varieties differing types|differing kinds} of tumours that may develop within the liver as liver is formed cancer-imageof various cell types. These growths is benign or malignant. Cancerous tumours will begin in liver and spread to alternative areas of your body, through your blood or your lymphatic system. This unfold of cancer is termed metastasis. Tumours can also unfold from alternative components of your body, like from your bowel, breast or lungs, to your liver.

Knowing the signs helps a doctor to create an accurate diagnosis call regarding the cancer stage and its treatment. The below-mentioned factors signal regarding cancer, and if you observe these for a extended period, consult a doctor for treatment.

Symptoms

Most people don’t have signs and symptoms in the early stages of primary liver cancer. When signs and symptoms do appear, they may include:

  • Losing weight without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • General weakness and fatigue
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Yellow discoloration of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) White, chalky stools.

Treatment overview                                           

In cancer care, differing kinds of doctors typically work along to create a patient’s overall treatment set up that combines differing kinds of treatments.. Cancer care groups also include a spread of alternative health care professionals, as well as physician assistants, medicine nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors:

  • How much of the liver is affected by the cancer
  • Whether the cancer has spread
  • The patient’s preferences and overall health
  • The damage to the remaining cancer-free area of the liver.

When a tumor is found at associate early stage and therefore the patient’s liver is functioning well, treatment is aimed at attempting to eliminate the cancer. The care arrange may additionally include treatment for symptoms and aspect effects, a very important a part of cancer care once liver cancer is found at a later stage, or the patient’s liver isn’t operating well, the patient and doctor should talk about the goals of every treatment recommendation. At now, the goals of treatment could specialize in slowing growth of the cancer and relieving symptoms to improve quality of life.

The various disease-directed treatment options can be grouped according to whether they may cure the cancer or will improve survival but will most likely not eliminate the cancer. Descriptions of the most common treatment options, both disease-directed and those aimed at managing side effects and symptoms, are listed below. Take time to learn about your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your doctor and what you can expect while receiving the treatment.

Two types of surgery are used to treat.

  • Hepatectomy :-when a portion of the liver is removed, the surgery is named a hepatectomy. A hepatectomy will be done provided that the cancer is in one a part of the liver and also the liver is functioning well. The remaining section of liver takes over the functions of the whole liver. The liver might grow back to its traditional size at intervals many weeks. A hepatectomy might not be possible if the patient has advanced cirrhosis, even if the tumour is little.

The side effects of a hepatectomy may include pain, weakness, fatigue, and temporary liver failure. The health care team will watch for signs of bleeding, infection, liver failure, or other problems that need immediate treatment.

  • Liver transplantation. Sometimes, a liver transplantation can be done. This procedure is possible only when the cancer has not spread outside the liver, a suitable donor is found, and very specific criteria are met in terms of tumor size and number. These criteria usually are a single tumor 5 cm or smaller or 3 or fewer tumors, all of which are smaller than 3 cm. It is important to understand that the number of donor livers available is very limited, so transplantation is not always an option.

After a transplant, the patient will be watched closely for signs that the body might be rejecting the new liver or that the tumor has come back. The patient must take medication to prevent rejection. These drugs can cause side effects, such as puffiness in the face, high blood pressure, or increased body hair.

Liver transplantation is a particularly effective treatment for people with a small tumor because transplantation removes the tumor and the damaged liver. However, there are few donors, and people waiting for a liver transplant may have to wait for a long time before a liver becomes available. During this time, the disease may get worse. The transplant center will advise you on how long the wait is likely to be and what rules are used to prioritize people on the waiting list.

Diagnosing liver cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver cancer include:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests may reveal liver function abnormalities.
  • Imaging tests. Your doctor may recommend imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Removing a sample of liver tissue for testing. Your doctor may recommend removing a piece of liver tissue for laboratory testing in order to make a definitive diagnosis of liver cancer.
  • Ultrasound test — The ultrasound device uses sound waves that cannot be heard by humans. The sound waves produce a pattern of echoes as they bounce off internal organs. The echoes create a picture (sonogram) of the liver and other organs in the abdomen. Tumors may produce echoes that are different from the echoes made by healthy tissues.
  • MRI — A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures are viewed on a monitor and can also be printed.
  • Angiogram — For an angiogram, the patient may be in the hospital and may have anesthesia. The doctor injects dye into an artery so that the blood vessels in the liver show up on an x-ray. The angiogram can reveal a tumor in the liver.
  • Biopsy — In some cases, the doctor may remove a sample of tissue. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue. The doctor may obtain tissue in several ways. One way is by inserting a thin needle into the liver to remove a small amount of tissue. This is called fine-needle aspiration. The doctor may use CT or ultrasound to guide the needle. Sometimes the doctor obtains a sample of tissue with a thick needle (core biopsy) or by inserting a thin, lighted tube (laparoscope) into a small incision in the abdomen. Another way is to remove tissue during an operation.

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Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India