Liver Cancer Treatment in India

What is Liver Cancer

Liver Cancer or Hepatic Tumour is a cancer of Liver. There are several different types of tumours that can develop in the liver as liver is made up of various cell types. These growths can be benign or malignant. Cancerous tumours can start in liver and spread to other areas of your body, through your bloodstream or your lymphatic system. This spread of cancer is cahepatactomylled metastasis. Tumours may also spread from other parts of your body, such as from your bowel, breast or lungs, to your liver.

Symptoms of Liver Cancer

Most people do not have signs and symptoms in the early stages of primary liver cancer. When symptoms do appear, they may include:

  • Losing weight without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • General weakness and fatigue
  • An enlarged liver
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Yellow discoloration of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)

There are two broad categories of liver cancer: Primary and Secondary

 Primary Liver Cancer
Primary liver cancer starts in the cells, bile ducts, blood vessels or connective tissue of the liver . There are different types of primary liver cancer that include:

  • Hepatoma :This is the most common type. It is sometimes called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This type of cancer originates from a liver cell (hepatocyte) which becomes cancerous. The bulk of the liver is made up from hepatocytes. A hepatoma most commonly develops as a complication of liver diseases such as cirrhosis or types of hepatitis (liver inflammation).
  • Fibrolamellar : This hepatoma is a rare sub-type of hepatoma. It typically develops in a liver that was previously healthy.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma : This is uncommon. It develops from cells which line the bile duct.
  • Hepatoblastoma : This is a very rare cancer that occurs in some young children.
  • Angiosarcoma : This is very rare. It develops from cells of blood vessels within the liver.

Secondary Liver Cancer
Secondary liver cancer is a cancer that first develops elsewhere in the body and then spreads (metastasizes) to the liver. It is sometimes called metastatic cancer.

When a cancer forms in a part of the body, a few cancer cells may break off and find their way into the bloodstream. Because your liver filters your blood, any cancer cells in the bloodstream have a high chance of settling in the liver to form a cancer nodule (metastasis).

People who are most at risk of secondary liver cancer are those with cancers of the large bowel (colon), pancreas, stomach, lung or breast. It is important to know where the cancer started as this will determine the type of cells which are causing the cancer and affect which treatment is best suited for you. Secondary cancer diagnosed in the liver may be a sign of cancer in other organs. Sometimes, secondary cancer is found in the liver and yet, even with thorough medical tests, it’s not possible to find out where the cancer started.

Diagnosis of Liver Cancer

  • Physical exam — The doctor feels the abdomen to check the liver, spleen, and nearby organs for any lumps or changes in their shape or size. The doctor also checks for ascites, an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen. The doctor may examine the skin and eyes for signs of jaundice.
  • Blood tests — Many blood tests may be used to check for liver problems. One blood test detects alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). High AFP levels could be a sign of liver cancer. Other blood tests can show how well the liver is working.
  • CT scan — An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of the liver and other organs and blood vessels in the abdomen. The patient may receive an injection of a special dye so the liver shows up clearly in the pictures. From the CT scan, the doctor may see tumors in the liver or elsewhere in the abdomen.
  • Ultrasound test — The ultrasound device uses sound waves that cannot be heard by humans. The sound waves produce a pattern of echoes as they bounce off internal organs. The echoes create a picture (sonogram) of the liver and other organs in the abdomen. Tumors may produce echoes that are different from the echoes made by healthy tissues.
  • MRI — A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures are viewed on a monitor and can also be printed.
  • Angiogram — For an angiogram, the patient may be in the hospital and may have anesthesia. The doctor injects dye into an artery so that the blood vessels in the liver show up on an x-ray. The angiogram can reveal a tumor in the liver.
  • Biopsy — In some cases, the doctor may remove a sample of tissue. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue. The doctor may obtain tissue in several ways. One way is by inserting a thin needle into the liver to remove a small amount of tissue. This is called fine-needle aspiration. The doctor may use CT or ultrasound to guide the needle. Sometimes the doctor obtains a sample of tissue with a thick needle (core biopsy) or by inserting a thin, lighted tube (laparoscope) into a small incision in the abdomen. Another way is to remove tissue during an operation.

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Liver Cancer Treatment in India

Cervical Cancer Treatment in India

What is Cervical Cancer ?

Cervical cancer is the malignancy that starts in the cervix. Cervical cancer instigate from the cells located on the surface of the cervix. Cervical cancer occurs in several forms. The most common is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for 85 to 90 percent of cervical cancers. Other forms include adenocarcinomas and combination cancers such as adenosquamous carcinoma. Some strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus transmitted during sex, play a role in causing most cases of cervical cancer.cervical-cancer The type of cervical cancer is determined by the type of cell where the early genetic mutation occurred.

What are Symptoms of Cervical Cancer? :

  • Abnormal bleeding Women with cervical cancer may experience abnormal vaginal bleeding. This can be heavy or light bleeding during the month.
  • Unusual heavy discharge –  An increased vaginal discharge is also a symptom of cervical cancer. It may be foul smelling, watery, thick, or contain mucus. It varies from woman to woman. It is important to report any unusual vaginal discharge to your doctor.
  • Pelvic pain Pelvic pain that is not related to the normal menstrual cycle can be a cervical cancer symptom. Many women describe them ranging from a dull ache to sharp pains that can last hours. It can be mild or severe.
  • Pain during urination Bladder pain or pain during urination can be a symptom of advanced cervical cancer. This cervical cancer symptom usually occurs when cancer has spread to the bladder.
  • Bleeding between regular menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, douching, or pelvic exam Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching, or pelvic exam can be cervical cancer symptoms. This is due to the irritation of the cervix during these activities. While a healthy cervix may have a very small amount of bleeding, many conditions may cause bleeding after activities like sex.

What are various types of Cervical Cancer?
There are two major types of cancer that develop from the cervix.

  • Squamous Cell Cancers – Squamous cell cancers arise from the squamous epithelium that covers the visible part of the cervix. Squamous cell cancers are unique because there is a well established progression through premalignant changes before a cancer develops. These premalignant changes are easy to detect by a simple screening test called the Pap test.
  • Adenocarcinomas – Adenocarcinomas arise from the glandular lining of the endocervical canal.

How to do Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer? 

  • Pap Smear Test A Pap smear is an examination under the microscope of cells scraped from the tip of the cervix. Doctors do this by putting an instrument called a speculum inside vagina and then scraping the cervix with a small brush.
  • Liquid Based Cytology – Liquid based cytology (LBC) is a way of preparing cervical samples for examination in the laboratory. The sample is collected in a similar way to the Pap smear, using a special device (spatula) which brushes cells from the neck of the womb.
  • Hybrid Capture II Test – The Hybrid Capture II HPV test tells if treatment is essential for women or not. It is a DNA based test that provides information about 13 types of HPV virus that might be the agent of infection of cervical cells.
  • Colposcopy – A colposcopy is a special way of looking at the cervix. It uses a light and a low-powered microscope to make the cervix appear much larger. This helps your health care provider find and then biopsy abnormal areas in your cervix.
  • Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) – The test involves the use of an electrode put inside the cervix to remove abnormal cells from the cervix and endo-cervical canal. A high frequency electric current is running through the wire.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) This test uses magnetism to build up pictures of the organs in your abdomen. It is very good at imaging the tissues of the pelvis where the cancer is. MRI is painless, and the magnetism is harmless.
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan – A CT scan is a type of x-ray that gives a cross-sectional picture of organs and other structures (including any tumours) in your body.
  • A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) A positron emission tomography (PET) scan can check to see if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

What are various Stages of Cervical Cancer ?

  • Stage I. Stage I cancer is confined to the cervix. Gyneconcologist may further classify it as Stages IA1, IA2, IB1 or IB2 depending on the size of the tumor and how deeply the cancer has invaded.
  • Stage II. Stage II cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but not to the pelvic sidewall or the upper third of the vagina. Gyneconcologistmay classify it as Stage IIA or IIB.
  • Stage III. In Stage III, the cancer extends to the pelvic wall or the lower third of the vagina or causes expansion of the ureters, resulting in kidney problems. Gyneconcologistmay classify it as Stage IIIA or IIIB based on whether cancer cells have extended to the sidewall of the pelvis.
  •  Stage IV. In Stage IV, the cancer has invaded the bladder or rectum and may extend   beyond the pelvis. Gyneconcologistmay identify it as Stage IVA or IVB.

What are various Cervical Cancer Surgery procedures?

The following surgical procedures may be used as part of cervical cancer treatment.

  • Conization – Conization, also called a cone biopsy, is a procedure that is used to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal. A pathologist will view the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. This type of surgery may be used to diagnose or treat a cervical condition.
  • HysterectomyA hysterectomy (removal of the uterus but not the ovaries) is not often performed for cervical cancer that has not spread. It may be done in women who have repeated LEEP procedures.
  • Radical Hysterectomy – Radical Hysterectomy removes the uterus and much of the surrounding tissues, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina.
  • CryosurgeryCryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue, such as carcinoma in situ. This type of cervical cancer surgery is also called cryotherapy.
  • Laser SurgeryLaser surgery is a procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor.
  • Pelvic Exenteration –  Surgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, and bladder. In women, the cervix, vagina, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings (stoma) are made for urine and stool to flow from the body to a collection bag. Plastic surgery may be needed to make an artificial vagina after this operation.

MyMedOpinion.com gets you Medical Opinion from India’s top Specialists and Best Treatment Cost from World Class hospitals in India- in just 24-48 hours.

MyMedOpinion.com  affiliated   Best hospitals in India provide an medical opinion from experienced surgeons and the treatment cost includes companion stay  , surgeon fee, medicines and consumables, nursing care, patient’s food and airport pick up & drop etc. etc. We offer free, no obligation assistance to international patients to find world class medical treatment in India. We offer support and services to facilitate the care you require. We can help you find the best hospital in India

Send us a Medical Report to Get FREE Medical Opinion from India’s Top Doctors

MyMedOpinion.com is the hub of Surgeons and specialists for major diseases. We give you a chance to speak to our doctors and discuss your health issues directly.

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Cervical Cancer Treatment in India

Advanced Uterine Cancer Treatment in India – Best Cancer Hospital India

Uterine Cancer Treatment in India

Male doctor explaining an X-Ray report to a female patient and her daughter

The uterus, or womb, is part of a woman’s reproductive system. It’s about the size and shape of a hollow, upside-down pear. The uterus sits low in the abdomen between the bladder and rectum and is held there by muscle. It’s joined to the vagina (birth canal) by the cervix, which is the neck of the uterus. The uterus is where a foetus grows.

 

The uterus is made up of two layers:

  1. Myometrium: the outer layer of muscle tissue. This makes up most of the uterus.
  2. Endometrium: the inner layer or the lining of the uterus.

In a woman of childbearing age, the endometrium changes in thickness each month to prepare for pregnancy. If the egg isn’t fertilised, the lining is shed and flows out of the body through the vagina. This flow is known as a woman’s period (menstruation).

When a woman releases an egg from her ovary (ovulates), the egg travels down her Fallopian tube into the uterus. If the egg is fertilised by a sperm, it will implant itself into the lining of the uterus and grow into a baby.

Menopause occurs when a woman no longer releases the hormones that cause ovulation and menstruation. A menopausal woman’s periods stop, and she’s not able to become pregnant. The uterus becomes smaller and the endometrium becomes thinner and inactive.
The most common cancer of a reproductive system of a woman is known as uterine cancer. This cancer starts in cell layers that form the lining of the uterus. This cancer can be detected in its early stage as it causes abnormal vaginal bleeding. The surgical removal of the uterus can cure uterine cancer.

Types of Uterine Cancer :- 

Sarcoma: Sarcoma cancer grows in the supporting tissues of the uterine glands or in the myometrium. This cancer accounts for 2-4% of uterine cancers.

Adenocarcinoma: This cancer is considered as the main type of uterine cancer that grows from the cells in the uterus lining. Endometrial cancer is the other name of this cancer.

The Symptoms of Uterine Cancer include :

  • Unusual Vaginal Bleeding or Discharge
  • Trouble Urinating
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen

Diagnosis of  Uterine Cancer

  • Pelvic Exam : Doctor checks your uterus, vagina, and nearby tissues for any lumps or changes in shape or size.
  • Physical Exam : A Thorough Medical History and Physical Examination is done
  • Ultrasound : An Ultrasound device uses sound waves that can’t be heard by humans. The sound waves make a pattern of echoes as they bounce off organs inside the pelvis. The echoes create a picture of your uterus and nearby tissues. The picture can show a uterine tumor. For a better view of the uterus, the device may be inserted into the vagina (transvaginal ultrasound).
  • Biopsy : The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is a biopsy. A thin tube is inserted through the vagina into your uterus. Your doctor uses gentle scraping and suction to remove samples of tissue. A pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells. In most cases, a biopsy is the only sure way to tell whether cancer is present.

World Most Advanced Uterine Cancer Treatment in India

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  • Surgery :During exploratory surgery, oncopathologist, who specialize in tissue study examine the cancer tissue so that gynaeoncologist can determine how much tissue to remove. In most cases, gynaeoncologist will recommend a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) or a complete hysterectomy (removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries). To find out whether the cancer has spread, gynaeoncologist also removes tissue from the lymph nodes near the uterus and other abdominal sites.
  • Chemotherapy : Certain types of chemicals are used for killing the cancer cells. One or more chemotherapy drugs may also be combined. The injection of these drugs can be done either through the mouth or into the veins. Women who are suffering from recurrent or advanced stage of uterine cancer that has spread beyond the uterus are treated with the help of chemotherapy. The drugs then enter into the bloodstream that moves in the entire body for destroying the cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy : High-energy radiation beams are used in this therapy for killing the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is also recommended for reducing the risk of recurrence after surgery. Also this therapy is also beneficial after surgery for shrinking the tumor so that can be easily removed. This therapy may involve –
    • Radiation given within the body : This involves the placement of a radiation-filled device like a cylinder, small seeds or wires within the vagina for a short duration. This process is known as internal radiation or Brachytherapy.
    • Radiation given through a machine outside the body : This process makes use of machine that is placed outside the body. The radiation is then directed at a specific point in the body and this process is known as external beam radiation.
  • Hormone therapy Gynaeoncologist may recommend progestin (synthetic progesterone) to help stop the cancer from spreading. Patient may take progestin with other medications.
Advanced Uterine Cancer Treatment in India – Best Cancer Hospital India