Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

 

What are signs and symptoms?

Signs and symptoms are both signals of injury, illness, disease – signals that something is not right in the body.

A sign is a signal that can be seen by someone else – maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. For example, fever, fast breathing, and abnormal lung sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

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A symptom is a signal that’s felt or noticed by the person who has it, but may not be easily seen by anyone else. For example, weakness, aching, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of pneumonia.

Having one sign or symptom may not be enough to figure out what’s causing it. For example, a rash in a child could be a sign of a number of things, such as poison ivy, measles, a skin infection, or a food allergy. But if the child has the rash along with other signs and symptoms like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a sore throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the illness. Sometimes, a patient’s signs and symptoms still don’t give the doctor enough clues to be sure what’s causing the illness. Then medical tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.

How does cancer cause signs and symptoms?

Cancer is a group of diseases that can cause almost any sign or symptom. The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects the organs or tissues. If a cancer has spread (metastasized), signs or symptoms may appear in different parts of the body.

As a cancer grows, it can begin to push on nearby organs, blood vessels, and nerves. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer. If the cancer is in a critical area, such as certain parts of the brain, even the smallest tumor can cause symptoms.

But sometimes cancer starts in places where it won’t cause any signs or symptoms until it has grown quite large. Cancers of the pancreas, for example, usually don’t cause symptoms until they grow large enough to press on nearby nerves or organs (this causes back or belly pain). Others may grow around the bile duct and block the flow of bile. This causes the eyes and skin to look yellow (jaundice). By the time a pancreatic cancer causes signs or symptoms like these, it’s usually in an advanced stage. This means it has grown and spread beyond the place it started – the pancreas.

A cancer may also cause symptoms like fever, extreme tiredness (fatigue), or weight loss. This may be because cancer cells use up much of the body’s energy supply, or they may release substances that change the way the body makes energy from food. Cancer can also cause the immune system to react in ways that produce these signs and symptoms.

Sometimes, cancer cells release substances into the bloodstream that cause symptoms that are not usually linked to cancer. For example, some cancers of the pancreas can release substances that cause blood clots in veins of the legs. Some lung cancers make hormone-like substances that raise blood calcium levels. This affects nerves and muscles, making the person feel weak and dizzy.

How are signs and symptoms helpful?

Treatment works best when cancer is found early – while it’s still small and is less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. This often means a better chance for a cure, especially if the cancer can be removed with surgery.

A good example of the importance of finding cancer early is melanoma skin cancer. It can be easy to remove if it has not grown deep into the skin. The 5-year survival rate (percentage of people who live at least 5 years after diagnosis) at this early stage is around 98%. Once melanoma has spread to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate drops to about 16%.

Sometimes people ignore symptoms. Maybe they don’t know that the symptoms could mean something is wrong. Or they might be frightened by what the symptoms could mean and 

don’t want to get medical help. Maybe they just can’t afford to get medical care.

Some symptoms, such as tiredness or coughing, are more likely caused by something other than cancer. Symptoms can seem unimportant, especially if there’s a clear cause or the problem only lasts a short time. In the same way, a person may reason that a symptom like a breast lump is probably a cyst that will go away by itself. But no symptom should be ignored or overlooked, especially if it has lasted a long time or is getting worse.

Most likely, symptoms are not caused by cancer, but it’s important to have them checked out, just in case. If cancer is not the cause, a doctor can help figure out what the cause is and treat it, if needed.

Sometimes, it’s possible to find cancer before having symptoms. The American Cancer Society and other health groups recommend cancer-related check-ups and certain tests for people even though they have no symptoms. This helps find certain cancers early, before symptoms start. For more information on early detection tests, see our document called American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer. But keep in mind, even if you have these recommended tests, it’s still important to see a doctor if you have any symptoms.

What are some general signs and symptoms of cancer?

You should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. But remember, having any of these does not mean that you have cancer – many other things cause these signs and symptoms, too. If you have any of these symptoms and they last for a long time or get worse, please see a doctor to find out what’s going on.

Unexplained weight loss

Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When you lose weight for no known reason, it’s called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung.

Fever

Fever is very common with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost all people with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.

Fatigue

Fatigue is extreme tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest. It may be an important symptom as cancer grows. But it may happen early in some cancers, like leukemia. Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss that’s not obvious. This is another way cancer can cause fatigue.

Pain

Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often, pain due to cancer means it has already spread (metastasized) from where it started.

Skin changes

Along with skin cancers, some other cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen. These signs and symptoms include:

  • Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
  • Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Reddened skin (erythema)
  • Itching (pruritis)
  • Excessive hair growth

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Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment at World Top Cancer Hospitals in India

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment in India

Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which normal cells in the pancreas malfunction and begin to grow uncontrollably. These cancerous cells can eventually interfere with proper functioning of the pancreas and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

The pancreas is a pear-shaped gland located in the abdomen between the stomach and the spine. It is about 6 inches in length and is composed of two major components: exocrine and enpancreatic-cancerdocrine. The exocrine component, made up of ducts and acini (small sacs on the end of the ducts), produce enzymes, which are specialized proteins released into the small intestine that help the body digest and break down food, particularly fats. It is the cells lining these pancreatic ducts that most frequently turn cancerous. These are called ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas and represent the most common subtype of pancreatic cancer.

Types of Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer can be categorized into different types that depend on whether or not the cancer began in the endocrine or exocrine component. Pancreatic cancer types include

Endocrine Tumors : Endocrine tumors also referred to as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) or islet cell tumors are not so common as compared to exocrine tumors. A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor could be non-functioning that means it does not make any hormones or it could also be functioning that means it can make hormones. The base of a functioning neuroendocrine tumor is on the hormone that cells usually make –

  • PPomas
  • Insulinoma
  • VIPomas
  • Gastrinoma
  • Glucagonoma
  • Somatostatinoma

Exocrine Tumors: They are considered as the most common type of pancreatic cancer. Adenocarcinoma that begins in gland cells is mostly seen in around 95% people who are suffering from pancreatic cancer. Ductal Adenocarcinoma is the ducts of the pancreas from where the tumor typically begins. Rarely when tumor starts in the acini then it is termed as acinar Adenocarcinoma.

Some of the other rare tumors of the pancreas are –

  • Lymphoma
  • Acinar Cell Carcinomas
  • Cystic Tumors
  • Neuroendocrine tumors

Pancreatic Cancer – Symptoms and Signs.

  • Yellow skin and eyes, darkening of the urine, itching, and clay-colored stool, which are signs of jaundice caused by a blockage of the bile ducts
  • Pain in upper abdomen or upper back
  • Painful swelling of an arm or leg due to a blood clot
  • Burning feeling in stomach or other gastrointestinal discomforts
  • Stomach bloating
  • Floating stools with a particularly bad odor and an unusual color due to the body not digesting fats well
  • Weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Unexplained weight loss

How Pancreatic Cancer is Diagnosed?

  • Computed tomography (CT scan): A scanner takes multiple X-ray pictures, and a computer reconstructs them into detailed images of the inside of the abdomen. A CT scan helps doctors make a pancreatic cancer diagnosis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Using magnetic waves, a scanner creates detailed images of the abdomen, in particular the area around the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
  • Ultrasound : Harmless sound waves reflected off organs in the belly create images, potentially helping doctors make a pancreatic cancer diagnosis.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET scan): Radioactive glucose injected into the veins is absorbed by cancer cells. PET scans may help determine the degree of pancreatic cancer spread.
  • Percutaneous needle biopsy : Under imaging guidance, a radiologist inserts a needle into the mass, capturing some tissue. This procedure is also called a fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): A flexible tube with a camera and other tools on its end (endoscope) is put through the mouth to the small intestine, near the pancreas. ERCP can collect images from the area, as well as take a small biopsy with a brush.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound : Similar to ERCP, an endoscope is placed near the pancreas. An ultrasound probe on the endoscope locates the mass, and a needle on the endoscope plucks some tissue from the mass.
  • Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that uses several small incisions. Using laparoscopy, a surgeon can collect tissue for biopsy, as well as see inside the abdomen to determine if pancreatic cancer has spread. However, laparoscopy has higher risks than other biopsy approaches.

Stages of Pancreatic Cancer
Stage is a term used in cancer treatment to describe the extent of spread of the cancer. The stages of pancreatic cancer are used to guide treatment and to classify patients for clinical trials. The stages of pancreatic cancer are:

  • Stage 0 : No spread. Pancreatic cancer is limited to a single layer of cells in the pancreas. The pancreatic cancer is not visible on imaging tests or even to the naked eye.
  • Stage I : Local growth. Pancreatic cancer is limited to the pancreas, but has grown to less than 2 centimeters across (stage IA) or greater than 2 centimeters (stage IB).
  • Stage II : Local spread. Pancreatic cancer has grown outside the pancreas, or has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage III : Wider spread. The tumor has expanded into nearby major blood vessels or nerves but has not metastasized.
  • Stage IV : Confirmed spread. Pancreatic cancer has spread to distant organs.

 

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Pancreatic Cancer Treatment at World Top Cancer Hospitals in India

Esophageal Cancer Treatment in India

Esophageal Cancer : What It Means?

Cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach). Two types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the esophagus) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Esophageal cancer has been categorized into two types that include :3608271681c60473ca2e5fe548dbe071d54af407

Adenocarcinoma : This type of esophageal cancer starts in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus. The stomach and the esophagus appear together in this lower part of esophagus.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the squamous cells lining the esophagus. This type of esophageal cancer typically occurs in the middle and upper part of the esophagus.

Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. However, as the cancer grows, symptoms may include painful or difficulty in swallowing, weight loss and coughing up blood. Risk factors for developing esophageal cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • Heavy Drinking
  • Damage from acid reflux
  • Frequent choking while eating
  • Chest burning, pain or pressure

Stages of Esophageal Cancer

If the diagnosis is esophageal cancer, the doctor needs to learn the stage (or extent) of disease. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body. Knowing the stage of the disease helps the doctor plan treatment. Listed below are descriptions of the four stages of esophageal cancer.

  • Stage I. The cancer is found only in the top layers of cells lining the esophagus.
  • Stage II. The cancer involves deeper layers of the lining of the esophagus, or it has spread to nearby lymph nodes. The cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • Stage III. The cancer has invaded more deeply into the wall of the esophagus or has spread to tissues or lymph nodes near the esophagus. It has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • Stage IV. The cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Esophageal cancer can spread almost anywhere in the body, including the liver, lungs, brain, and bones.

Treatment and Diagnosis:

Diagnosing Esophageal Cancer

To help find the cause of symptoms, the doctor evaluates a person’s medical history and performs a physical exam. The doctor usually orders a chest x-ray and other diagnostic tests. These tests may include the following:

  • A barium swallow (also called an esophagram) is a series of x-rays of the esophagus. The patient drinks a liquid containing barium, which coats the inside of the esophagus. The barium makes any changes in the shape of the esophagus show up on the x-rays.
  • Esophagoscopy (also called endoscopy) is an examination of the inside of the esophagus using a thin lighted tube called an endoscope.images123 An anesthetic (substance that causes loss of feeling or awareness) is usually used during this procedure. If an abnormal area is found, the doctor can collect cells and tissue through the endoscope for examination under a microscope. This is called a biopsy. A biopsy can show cancer, tissue changes that may lead to cancer, or other conditions.

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Esophageal Cancer Treatment in India

Lung Cancer Treatment in India

What is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes you’ve smoked. If you quit smoking, even after smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung cancer.lung-cancer-treatment-in-india

Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood.

Types and Staging of Lung Cancer

There are two major types of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Staging lung cancer is based on whether the cancer is local or has spread from the lungs to the lymph nodes or other organs. Because the lungs are large, tumors can grow in them for a long time before they are found. Even when symptoms—such as coughing and fatigue—do occur, people think they are due to other causes. For this reason, early-stage lung cancer (stages I and II) is difficult to detect. Most people with lung cancer are diagnosed at stages III and IV.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85 percent of lung cancers. Among them are these types of tumors:

  • Adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer in the United States among both men and women.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (which is also called epidermoid carcinoma) forms in the lining of the bronchial tubes.
  • Large cell carcinomas refer to non-small cell lung cancers that are neither adenocarcinomas nor epidermoid cancers.

    Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Stage I : The cancer is located only in the lungs and has not spread to any lymph nodes.
  • Stage II : The cancer is in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage III : Cancer is found in the lung and in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest, also described as locally advanced disease. Stage III has two subtypes:
    • If the cancer has spread only to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest where the cancer started, it is called stage IIIA.
    • If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest, or above the collar bone, it is called stage IIIB.
  • Stage IV : This is the most advanced stage of lung cancer, and is also described as advanced disease. This is when the cancer has spread to both lungs, to fluid in the area around the lungs, or to another part of the body, such as the liver or other organs.

Small Cell Lung Cancer
Small cell lung cancer results from smoking even more so than non-small cell lung cancer, and grow more rapidly and spread to other parts of the body earlier than non-small cell lung cancer. It is also more responsive to chemotherapy.
Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Limited stage : In this stage, cancer is found on one side of the chest, involving just one part of the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
  • Extensive stage : In this stage, cancer has spread to other regions of the chest or other parts of the body.

What Treatment Options are available for Lung Cancer?
There are a variety of surgical and non-surgical treatment options for lung cancer. Early stage lung cancer can be treated surgically by removing the malignant area in a procedure called a lobectomy.  The most advanced and least invasive approach to lung cancer surgery, called VATS lobectomy.
Non –surgical options include stereotactic body radiation therapy which delivers high doses of radiation to the lung tumor.

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Lung Cancer Treatment in India

Oral Cancer Treatment in India

Oral Cancer Care and Treatment in India

Oral cancer is part of a group of cancers called head and neck cancers. Oral cancer can develop in any part of the oral cavity or oropharynx. Most oral cancers begin in the tongue and in the floor of the mouth. Almost all oral cancers begin in the flat cells (squamous cells) that cover the surfaces of the mouth, tongue, and lips. These cancers are called squamous cell carcinomas. When oral cancer spreads (metastasizes), it usually travels through the lymphatic system. Cancer cells that enter the lymphatic system are carried along by lymph, a clear, watery fluid. The cancer cells often appear first in nearby lymph nodes in the neck.headneck

Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the neck, the lungs, and other parts of the body. When this happens, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells as the primary tumor. For example, if oral cancer spreads to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually oral cancer cells. The disease is metastatic oral cancer, not lung cancer. It is treated as oral cancer, not lung cancer.

Oral cancer happens when there is something wrong or unusual in the normal cell lifecycle. This abnormal working of the cell lifecycle results in uncontrollable growth and reproduction of these cells.

Some of the risk factors for Oral Cancer include:

  • Tobacco use
  • Heavy alcohol use
  • Smoking
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection
  • High levels of sun or ultraviolet (UV) light exposure
  • Personal history of oral cancer
  • Betel quid and gutka use
  • Diets low in fruits and vegatables
  • Weakened immune system.

What are the Symptoms of Oral Cancer.

  • Abnormal patches inside the mouth or on your lips
  • Sore on the lip or in the mouth that doesn’t heal
  • Unexplained bleeding in the mouth
  • Loose teeth
  • Difficulty or pain when swallowing
  • Difficulty wearing dentures
  • A lump in your neck
  • An earache that doesn’t go away
  • Numbness of lower lip and chin.

How to diagnose Oral Cancer.

  • Biopsy : A small tissue sample is taken in biopsy that is further sent to a laboratory for determining the type of cells and whether they are cancerous or non-cancerous.
  • Throat and Mouth Examination : A special instrument known as flexible laryngoscope is used for viewing within the throat and mouth.

Certain other tests are also required for determining the spread of the cancer.

  • A Barium Swallow and Meal Test : This test requires a patient to swallow a drink having barium. An x-ray will present images of abnormal growths in the digestive system down to the stomach.
  • X-rays : X-rays are done of the lower and upper jaw or a chest x-ray can also be done.
  • Endoscopy : This test helps in viewing the body from within. An endoscope (a narrow and flexible tube having a telescopic camera) is used for performing this test.
  • Certain other biopsies of nearby lymph nodes are also done.

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Oral Cancer Treatment in India

Breast Cancer Treatment In India

Low Cost Breast Cancer Treatment In India

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Around one in nine women develop breast cancer at some stage in their life. Most develop in women over the age of 50 but younger women are sometimes affected. Breast cancer can also develop in men, although this is rare. Breast cancer develops from a cancerous cell which develops in the lining of a duct or lobule in one of the breasts.breastcancer2

But With advancement in technology, breast cancer is no longer an incurable disease. With the latest technology available at top cancer hospitals in India, breast cancer can now be detected at very early stages and can be completely treated. The approach used for cancer treatment in India is multidisciplinary, which involves Surgical Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Medical Oncology and rehabilitation after cancer surgery.

What are Types of Breast Cancer?

Breast Cancer is mainly of two types:

  • Ductal carcinoma- occurs in milk ducts
  • Lobular carcinoma- occurs in the milk secreting breast lobules

Categorically breast cancer can also be divided into following types:

  • In-situ breast cancer- cancer cells remains confined within their place of origin and do not attack surrounding breast tissue.
  • Invasive or metastatic breast cancer- cancer cells break free of their place of origin, and spread to different parts of the body.

Like all cancer types, breast cancer also progresses through different stages. Breast cancer stages are based on the size of the breast lump or tumor, whether the cancer is in-situ type or malignant, and whether the cancer has spread beyond the breast tissue.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer symptoms may vary from lumps to swelling to skin changes and many breast cancers have no obvious symptoms at all. Symptoms that are similar to those of breast cancer may be the result of non-cancerous conditions like infection or a cyst, a lump or thickening in the breast or armpit, discharge from the nipple or a change in the color or texture of the skin of the breast.

How to do Diagnosis of Breast Cancer?

With the increased number of breast cancer there has also been increase in the diagnostic tool that can help in identifying the onset of the disease. The diagnostic tools have been listed below:breastcancerradiation_m_031-jpg-600x315_q80_crop-smart

  • Mammogram: The first diagnostic tool to identify breast cancer is Mammogram. It is an X-ray of the breast that can show the presence of abnormal growth lumps in the breast area.5
  • Ultra-Sonography: Use of high frequency sound waves often identifies whether the lump is filled with liquid or solid for further investigation.18
  • Aspiration: Fine needle is inserted in the lump to take the tissue or liquid out from the lump and then a biopsy is performed to test for carcinoma.19
  • Surgical Biopsy Surgical biopsy removes a small part of lump by surgery and then the lump is tested for further diagnosis.

What are various Breast Cancer Treatment available?

In recent years, there has been an explosion of life-saving treatment advances against breast cancer, bringing new hope and excitement. Instead of only one or two options, today there’s an overwhelming menu of treatment choices that fight the complex mix of cells in each individual cancer. Your doctor determines your breast cancer treatment options based on your type of breast cancer, its stage, whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones, your overall health and your own preferences.

Six types of standard breast cancer treatment used are:-

  • Surgery
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Targeted Therapy

 

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Breast Cancer Treatment In India

Advanced Uterine Cancer Treatment in India – Best Cancer Hospital India

Uterine Cancer Treatment in India

Male doctor explaining an X-Ray report to a female patient and her daughter

The uterus, or womb, is part of a woman’s reproductive system. It’s about the size and shape of a hollow, upside-down pear. The uterus sits low in the abdomen between the bladder and rectum and is held there by muscle. It’s joined to the vagina (birth canal) by the cervix, which is the neck of the uterus. The uterus is where a foetus grows.

 

The uterus is made up of two layers:

  1. Myometrium: the outer layer of muscle tissue. This makes up most of the uterus.
  2. Endometrium: the inner layer or the lining of the uterus.

In a woman of childbearing age, the endometrium changes in thickness each month to prepare for pregnancy. If the egg isn’t fertilised, the lining is shed and flows out of the body through the vagina. This flow is known as a woman’s period (menstruation).

When a woman releases an egg from her ovary (ovulates), the egg travels down her Fallopian tube into the uterus. If the egg is fertilised by a sperm, it will implant itself into the lining of the uterus and grow into a baby.

Menopause occurs when a woman no longer releases the hormones that cause ovulation and menstruation. A menopausal woman’s periods stop, and she’s not able to become pregnant. The uterus becomes smaller and the endometrium becomes thinner and inactive.
The most common cancer of a reproductive system of a woman is known as uterine cancer. This cancer starts in cell layers that form the lining of the uterus. This cancer can be detected in its early stage as it causes abnormal vaginal bleeding. The surgical removal of the uterus can cure uterine cancer.

Types of Uterine Cancer :- 

Sarcoma: Sarcoma cancer grows in the supporting tissues of the uterine glands or in the myometrium. This cancer accounts for 2-4% of uterine cancers.

Adenocarcinoma: This cancer is considered as the main type of uterine cancer that grows from the cells in the uterus lining. Endometrial cancer is the other name of this cancer.

The Symptoms of Uterine Cancer include :

  • Unusual Vaginal Bleeding or Discharge
  • Trouble Urinating
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen

Diagnosis of  Uterine Cancer

  • Pelvic Exam : Doctor checks your uterus, vagina, and nearby tissues for any lumps or changes in shape or size.
  • Physical Exam : A Thorough Medical History and Physical Examination is done
  • Ultrasound : An Ultrasound device uses sound waves that can’t be heard by humans. The sound waves make a pattern of echoes as they bounce off organs inside the pelvis. The echoes create a picture of your uterus and nearby tissues. The picture can show a uterine tumor. For a better view of the uterus, the device may be inserted into the vagina (transvaginal ultrasound).
  • Biopsy : The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is a biopsy. A thin tube is inserted through the vagina into your uterus. Your doctor uses gentle scraping and suction to remove samples of tissue. A pathologist examines the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells. In most cases, a biopsy is the only sure way to tell whether cancer is present.

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  • Surgery :During exploratory surgery, oncopathologist, who specialize in tissue study examine the cancer tissue so that gynaeoncologist can determine how much tissue to remove. In most cases, gynaeoncologist will recommend a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) or a complete hysterectomy (removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries). To find out whether the cancer has spread, gynaeoncologist also removes tissue from the lymph nodes near the uterus and other abdominal sites.
  • Chemotherapy : Certain types of chemicals are used for killing the cancer cells. One or more chemotherapy drugs may also be combined. The injection of these drugs can be done either through the mouth or into the veins. Women who are suffering from recurrent or advanced stage of uterine cancer that has spread beyond the uterus are treated with the help of chemotherapy. The drugs then enter into the bloodstream that moves in the entire body for destroying the cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy : High-energy radiation beams are used in this therapy for killing the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is also recommended for reducing the risk of recurrence after surgery. Also this therapy is also beneficial after surgery for shrinking the tumor so that can be easily removed. This therapy may involve –
    • Radiation given within the body : This involves the placement of a radiation-filled device like a cylinder, small seeds or wires within the vagina for a short duration. This process is known as internal radiation or Brachytherapy.
    • Radiation given through a machine outside the body : This process makes use of machine that is placed outside the body. The radiation is then directed at a specific point in the body and this process is known as external beam radiation.
  • Hormone therapy Gynaeoncologist may recommend progestin (synthetic progesterone) to help stop the cancer from spreading. Patient may take progestin with other medications.
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