Robotic Prostate Cancer Best Hospitals in India

Robotic assisted prostatectomy is a way of doing surgery for prostate cancer. It is a type of keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery. It is also called da Vinci surgery.

A surgeon inciciondoes the surgery but uses a special machine (robot) to help.

We don’t yet know whether robotic assisted surgery is better than other types of surgery for prostate cancer or whether it is cost effective.

You have robotic assisted surgery in an operating theatre under a general anaesthetic.

Doctors need to have special training before they can carry out this type of surgery. It involves two machines. The patient unit and the control unit.

Robotic surgery had the same advantages as laparoscopic prostate surgery when compared to the standard open operation to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy).

There was:

  • less bleeding
  • less scarring
  • a shorter stay in hospital
  • quicker recovery

The review also found that if the surgeon was experienced, the operation appears to be as good as the standard radical prostatectomy in removing cancer with a border of healthy tissue (clear margin).

Some studies in the review found that men were more likely to get their bladder control back quickly after this type of surgery.

They were also able to get an erection again sooner. The studies were small and weren’t randomised, so we don’t yet know for certain if it is better than standard surgery at reducing the number of men who have side effects.

The usual way of having your prostate removed is either through:

  • a cut in your abdomen (retropubic prostatectomy)
  • a cut between your testicles and your back passage (perineal prostatectomy)
  • keyhole surgery (laparoscopic)

Some of the best Hospitals for Robotic Prostate Cancer Treatment in India

  1. Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram.
  2. Jaypee Hospital, Noida.
  3. Artemis Hospital, Gurugram.
  4. Fortis Hospital, Mumbai.
  5. Fortis Hospital, Bangalore.
  6. Max Hospital, Delhi.

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Robotic Prostate Cancer Best Hospitals in India

Pediatric Heart Surgery Best Hospital in India

Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that need surgery. The surgery is needed for the child’s well being.pediatric-cardiac

There are several sorts of heart defects. Some are minor, and others area unit additional serious. Defects will occur within the center or within the large blood vessels outside the heart. Some heart defects might have surgery right when the baby is born. For others, your kid could also be ready to safely wait for months or years to have surgery.
One surgery could also be enough to repair the heart defect, but typically a series of procedures is required. 3 completely different techniques for fixing congenital defects of the heart in children are described below.

Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine.

  • An incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia (the child is asleep and pain free).
  • Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a special pump called a heart-lung bypass machine. This machine adds oxygen to the blood and keeps the blood warm and moving through the rest of the body while the surgeon is repairing the heart.
  • Using the machine allows the heart to be stopped. Stopping the heart makes it possible to repair the heart muscle itself, the heart valves, or the blood vessels outside the heart. After the repair is done, the heart is started again, and the machine is removed. The breastbone and the skin incision are then closed.

For some heart defect repairs, the incision is made on the side of the chest, between the ribs. This is called a thoracotomy. It is sometimes called closed-heart surgery. This surgery may be done using special instruments and a camera.

Another way to fix defects in the heart is to insert small tubes into an artery in the leg and pass them up to the heart. Only some heart defects can be repaired this way.

The most common heart ailments in children are:

  • Fallot’s tetralogy
  • Ventricular Septal Defect
  • Atrial Septal Defect
  • Valvular defects
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Aortic coarctation
  • Tricuspid atresia

Procedure

There are various techniques to perform pediatric heart surgery, depending upon the heart defect the child is suffering from and the medical condition and age of the patient.

Besides, the defects can be inside the heart or in large blood vessels outside the heart. Sometimes, one surgery may be enough to repair the defect, but sometimes a series of procedures are required to completely correct the defect.

Three different techniques are used to fix congenital heart defects in children described as below:

  1. Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine. It is done under general anesthesia
    • Incision is made through the breastbone (sternum)
    • Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a special pump called a heart-lung bypass machine. This machine adds oxygen to the blood and keeps the blood warm and moving through the rest of the body while the surgeon is repairing the heart.childicu_928442
    • Using the machine allows the heart to be stopped. Stopping the heart makes it possible to repair the heart muscle itself, the heart valves, or the blood vessels outside the heart. After the repair is done, the heart is started again, and the machine is removed. The breastbone and the skin incisions are then closed.
  2. Thoracotomy- Also known as closed heart surgery, during this type of surgery, the incision is made on the side of the chest, between the ribs. This type of surgery is done using special instruments and a camera.
  3. The other technique uses small tubes to be inserted in the heart through an artery in the leg. Only some heart defects can be repaired this way.

Why is the Procedure required?

If the following warning signs are found in children, it indicates that a surgery is required:

  • Blue or gray skin, nail beds and lips. These symptoms indicate that there is not enough oxygen in the blood (hypoxia).
  • If the child has difficulty in breathing because the lungs are “wet,” congested, or filled with fluid (heart failure).
  • If there exists problems in heart rhythm (arrhythmias) or heart rate.
  • If there is lack of growth and development of a child. And the child is not able to sleep and eat properly.

Risks for any surgery are:

  • Bleeding during surgery or in the days after surgery
  • Bad reactions to medicines
  • Problems breathing
  • Infection

Additional risks of heart surgery are:

  • Blood clots (thrombi)
  • Air bubbles (air emboli)
  • Pneumonia
  • Heartbeat problems (arrhythmias)
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke

Before the Procedure

If your child is talking, tell them about the surgery. If you have a preschool-aged child, tell them the day before what will happen. Say, for example, “We are going to the hospital to stay for a few days. The doctor is going to do an operation on your heart to make it work better.”

If your child is older, start talking about the procedure 1 week before the surgery. You should involve the child’s life specialist (someone who helps children and their families during times like major surgery) and show the child the hospital and surgical areas.

Your child may need many different tests:

  • Blood tests (complete blood count, electrolytes, clotting factors, and “cross match”)
  • X-rays of the chest
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG, or ECG)
  • Echocardiogram (ECHO, or ultrasound of the heart)
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • History and physical

Recovery

The child would stay in the ICU for 3-4 days after the procedure and another week or so in the hospital. The child would need about 3 or 4 more weeks at home to recover. For larger surgeries, recovery may take 6 to 8 weeks.

Pain after surgery is normal and would be controlled with medications. Most children behave differently after heart surgery- they may be irritable, clingy or cry even if they were not doing this before the surgery.

The child should not do any activity where there are chances that he/ she may fall or take a blow to chest- bicycle, skateboard riding, swimming and sports should wait for at least 4 weeks. If there has been an incision through the breast bone, they should be careful in using their arms. They should not do activities like pulling or pushing, lifting arms above the head, lifting heavy things. You should not lift the child by arms.

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Pediatric Heart Surgery Best Hospital in India

Total Hip Joint Replacement Surgery at World Class Best Hospitals in India

What Is a Hip Replacement?

Hip replacement, or arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the diseased parts of the hip joint are removed and replaced with new, artificial parts. These artificial parts are called the prosthesis.hip0000 The goals of hip replacement surgery include increasing mobility, improving the function of the hip joint, and relieving pain.

 

 

 

Type of Total Hip Replacement (THR)

Conventional total hip replacement is a prosthesis that is anchored in the upper part of femur (thighbone).

In a short stem hip replacement, the prosthesis on the femoral side is very small in comparison. It is anchored only in the spongy bone. It is uncemented. This is a bone preserving hip replacement.

Anchorage method can be either cemented or uncemented. Prostheses that are anchored with bone cement are cemented hip replacements. Those prostheses, which rely on natural bony ingrowth for anchorage, are uncemented hip replacement. Natural bone in growth is encouraged by various coatings to the stem.

Who Should Have Hip Replacement Surgery?

People with hip joint damage that causes pain and interferes with daily activities despite treatment may be candidates for hip replacement surgery. Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of this type of damage. However, other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (a chronic inflammatory disease that causes joint pain, stiffness, and swelling), osteonecrosis (or avascular necrosis, which is the death of bone caused by insufficient blood supply), injury, fracture, and bone tumors also may lead to breakdown of the hip joint and the need for hip replacement surgery.

Benefits

The hip replacement operation is one of the most reliable operations in orthopaedic surgery and consistently reduces or eliminates the pain of the arthritis in most patients. Some of the important benefits of a Total Hip replacement surgery are, marked reduction in pain and improvement in sleep, most people regain range of motion, physical ability, and quality of life.

Diagnosis
The diagnosis of a hip pain starts with medical history taking by your doctor. Here the doctor tries understanding the cause for pain as well as reviewing any other underlying complaints. Observation of the hip at rest and while standing or walking, palpation (or feeling) of the hip and surrounding structures, testing for range of motion and strength, and checking for sensation and pulses all may be done. Few blood tests may also be ordered.
The most common imaging technique used in the diagnosis of a hip pain is X-ray. Other imaging like CT scan or a MRI scan may also be used.

How to Prepare for Surgery and Recovery

People can do many things before and after they have surgery to make everyday tasks easier and help speed their recovery.

Before Surgery

  • Learn what to expect. Request information written for patients from the doctor, or contact one of the organizations listed near the end of this publication.
  • Arrange for someone to help you around the house for a week or two after coming home from the hospital.
  • Arrange for transportation to and from the hospital.
  • Set up a “recovery station” at home. Place the television remote control, radio, telephone, medicine, tissues, wastebasket, and pitcher and glass next to the spot where you will spend the most time while you recover.
  • Place items you use every day at arm’s level to avoid reaching up or bending down.
  • Stock up on kitchen supplies and prepare food in advance, such as frozen casseroles or soups that can be reheated and served easily.

After Surgery

  • Follow the doctor’s instructions.
  • Work with a physical therapist or other health care professional to rehabilitate your hip.
  • Wear an apron for carrying things around the house. This leaves hands and arms free for balance or to use crutches.
  • Use a long-handled “reacher” to turn on lights or grab things that are beyond arm’s length. Hospital personnel may provide one of these or suggest where to buy one.

What Types of Exercise Are Most Suitable for Someone With a Total Hip Replacement?

Proper exercise can reduce stiffness and increase flexibility and muscle strength. People who have an artificial hip should talk to their doctor or physical therapist about developing an appropriate exercise program. Most of these programs begin with safe range-of-motion activities and muscle-strengthening exercises. The doctor or therapist will decide when you can move on to more demanding activities. Many doctors recommend avoiding high-impact activities, such as basketball, jogging, and tennis. These activities can damage the new hip or cause loosening of its parts. Some recommended exercises are walking, stationary bicycling, swimming, and cross-country skiing. These exercises can increase muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness without injuring the new hip.

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Total Hip Joint Replacement Surgery at World Class Best Hospitals in India

Heart Valve Repair or Replacement Surgery Hospitals in India

Overview

Heart valve surgery is a procedure to treat heart valve disease. In heart valve disease, at least one of the four heart valves that keep blood flowing in the correct direction through your heart doesn’t function properly.heart_valve_replacement03

These valves include the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each valve has flaps called leaflets, for the mitral and tricuspid valves, and cusps, for the aortic and pulmonary valves. These flaps open and close once during each heartbeat. Sometimes the valves don’t open or close properly, disrupting the blood flow through your heart to your body.

In heart valve surgery, your surgeon repairs or replaces the affected heart valves. Many surgical procedures may be used to repair or replace heart valves, including open-heart surgery or minimally invasive heart surgery.

Your treatment depends on several factors, including your age, health, the condition of the heart valve that is affected and the severity of your condition.

Your treatment depends on several factors, including your age, health, the condition of the heart valve that is affected and the severity of your condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure

In the early stages, Heart Failure may not have any symptoms. In the later stages, the patient may have severe symptoms because the weakened heart is unable to pump enough oxygen-rich blood with each contraction to satisfy the body.

The most common symptoms are

  1. Difficulty in Breathing – Fluid back up into and around the lungs can cause shortness of breath with exercise or difficulty in breathing at rest. Some people with Heart Failure must prop themselves up with extra pillows to breathe more easily.
  2. Chronic Cough – The build-up of fluid in the lungs causes the lungs to work harder. Patients may have a persistent cough or wheezing (a whistling sound in the lungs, or labored breathing).
  3. Edema – Less blood to the kidneys causes fluid and water retention, resulting in swollen ankles, legs and abdomen and weight gain. Symptoms may cause an increased need to urinate during the night.
  4. Loss of Appetite – Bloating in the abdomen may result in loss of appetite or nausea. Patients have the feeling of being “full,” even when they have not eaten for a long time. Their abdomen may become swollen or distended.
  5. Fatigue – Less blood to major organs and muscles makes one feel tired and weak.     Patients find even walking difficult.

Heart valve surgery risks may include:

  • Bleeding
  • Heart attack
  • Infection
  • Valve dysfunction in replacement valve
  • Irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia)
  • Stroke
  • Death

Diagnosis for Heart Failure

There is no single test that can diagnose Heart Failure. The patient may have to go some of the following tests –

  1. EKG (Electrocardiogram) – This test is used to measure the heart’s electrical activity. It may show if the patient has had a heart attack or if there is thickening of the walls in the heart’s pumping chambers (ventricles) or if the heart rhythms are abnormal.
  2. Chest X-ray – A chest X-ray shows if the heart is enlarged or if there is fluid in the lungs, or any lung disease.
  3. BNP Blood Test – This test checks the level of a hormone called BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) that rises in Heart Failure.
  4. Thyroid Function Tests – These tests reveal whether an overactive or an under-active thyroid is responsible for Heart Failure.
  5. Echocardiogram – Echocardiogram enables the doctor to evaluate the size, thickness and pumping action of the heart, as well as evaluate how well the heart valves are functioning. A stress echocardiogram may also be useful in assessing how well the heart is functioning at rest and during exercise.
  6. Coronary Angiography – This test, usually performed along with cardiac catheterization, helps the doctor see the flow of blood to the heart muscle.
  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – MRI shows detailed images of the structures and beating of the heart, enabling the doctor to assess if parts of the heart are weak or damaged.

BEFORE THE PROCEDURE

How long the operation takes depends on how much heart disease is present. Your surgeon will discuss this with you before the operation.

To help you learn about the procedure, your doctor may suggest a number of actions, including:

  • Talking with different members of the surgical team, such as the anesthesiologist, surgeon, cardiologist, respiratory therapist, and nurses
  • Discussing with family members the details of the operation
  • Visiting the intensive care unit (ICU) where you may be sent for postoperative recovery

DURING THE PROCEDURE

During the operation, the surgeon opens your chest to get to your heart and the problem valve. You will be asleep during the operation and will feel no pain.

During the majority of procedures, your heart will be temporarily stopped, and you’ll be put on a heart/lung machine that takes over your breathing and blood circulation. Alternatively, there are procedures that may be performed on a beating heart. Your surgeon will decide which type of procedure is best for your particular needs.

Procedures that let the surgeon get to the damaged valve through a small incision in the “breastbone” (sternum) or under the right pectoral muscle in your chest are called minimally invasive procedures.mitral_valve_repair123

With recent advances in technologies and procedural techniques, more cardiac surgeons are using minimally invasive procedures to repair heart valves. These procedures may potentially reduce pain, scarring, and your recovery time. You and your doctor will decide if this is a practical procedure for your condition.

Heart valve repair is performed with one of the three types of incisions shown in this illustration. Minimally invasive surgery uses a “mini” incision in the sternum or under the pectoral muscle in your chest to access the heart valve.

Your surgeon may perform one or several of these procedures as he or she repairs your heart valve:

  • Resize the valve by removing extra tissue
  • Remove calcium deposits that may have built up around the valve leaflets
  • Repair the cords that control the movement of the valve leaflets
  • Reattach the valve to its cords
  • Add support to the base of the valve (annulus) by adding tissue or by sewing an annulus band or ring around the outside of the valve

AFTER THE PROCEDURE

When the heart valve has been repaired and the surgery is completed, your heart will be beating and all incisions will be closed.

Following the surgery, you’ll spend some time in the intensive care unit (ICU) where you will be closely monitored to make sure there are no complications. After that, you’ll be moved to another room where your family and friends will be able to visit you.

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Heart Valve Repair or Replacement Surgery Hospitals in India

SPINAL FUSION SURGERY HOSPITALS IN INDIA

A spinal fusion surgery is designed to stop the motion at a painful vertebral segment, which in turn should decrease pain generated from the joint.spinal 52

There are many approaches to lumbar spinal fusion surgery, and all involve the following process:

  • Adding bone graft to a segment of the spine
  • Set up a biological response that causes the bone graft to grow between the two vertebral elements to create a bone fusion
  • The boney fusion – which results in one fixed bone replacing a mobile joint – stops the motion at that joint segment

For patients with the following conditions, if abnormal and excessive motion at a vertebral segment results in severe pain and inability to function, a lumbar fusion may be considered:

  • Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease
  • Lumbar Spondylolisthesis (isthmic, degenerative, or postlaminectomy spondylolisthesis)

Other conditions that may be treated by a spinal fusion surgery include a weak or unstable spine (caused by infections or tumors), fractures, scoliosis, or deformity.

How Spinal Fusion Works

At each level in the spine, there is a disc space in the front and paired facet joints in the back. Working together, these structures define a motion segment and permit multiple degrees of motion.

Two vertebral segments need to be fused together to stop the motion at one segment, so that an L4-L5 (lumbar segment 4 and lumbar segment 5) spinal fusion is actually a one-level spinal fusion.

Working together, these structures define a motion segment and permit multiple degrees of motion.

Two vertebral segments need to be fused together to stop the motion at one segment, so that an L4-L5 (lumbar segment 4 and lumbar segment 5) spinal fusion is actually a one-level spinal fusion.

An L4-L5, L5-S1 fusion is a 2-level fusion.

  • Read more about the L4-L5 and L5-S1 spinal segments

A spine fusion surgery involves using bone graft to cause two vertebral bodies to grow together into one long bone. Bone graft can be taken from the patient’s hip (autograft bone) during the spine fusion surgery, harvested from cadaver bone (allograft bone), or manufactured (synthetic bone graft substitute).

  • See Bone Graft Options for Spine Fusion

In addition to choices about which/how many levels to fuse and which bone graft to choose, there are many types of spinal fusion, including fusions with surgical approaches from the front (anterior), the back (posterior), both front and back, and/or from the side.

  • Looking to relieve your pain? Find a surgeon or doctor in your area today

There are several types of spinal fusion surgery options. The most commonly employed surgical techniques include:

  • Posterolateral gutter fusion – the procedure is done through the back
  • Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) – the procedure is done from the back and includes removing the disc between two vertebrae and inserting bone into the space created between the two vertebral bodies
  • Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) – the procedure is done from the front and includes removing the disc between two vertebrae and inserting bone into the space created between the two vertebral bodies
  • Anterior/posterior spinal fusion – the procedure is done from the front and the back
  • Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) – Similar to the PLIF, this procedure is also done from the back of the spine
  • Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF) – an interbody fusion in which the approach is from the side

It is important to note that with any type of spine fusion, there is a risk of clinical failure (meaning that the patient’s pain does not go away) despite achieving a successful fusion.

Multilevel Spinal Fusion

In the vast majority of cases, a lumbar spinal fusion surgery is most effective for those conditions involving only one vertebral segment. Most patients will not notice any limitation in motion after a one-level spine fusion.

When necessary, fusing two levels of the spine may be a reasonable option for treatment of pain. However, spinal fusion of more than 2 levels is unlikely to provide pain relief because it removes too much of the normal motion in the lower back and places too much stress across the remaining joints.

Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery

Spinal fusion surgery is designed to stop the motion at a painful vertebral segment, which in turn should decrease pain generated from the joint.

There are many approaches to lumbar spinal fusion surgery, and all involve the following process:

  • Adding bone graft to a segment of the spine
  • Set up a biological response that causes the bone graft to grow between the two vertebral elements to create a bone fusion
  • The boney fusion – which results in one fixed bone replacing a mobile joint – stops the motion at that joint segment

For patients with the following conditions, if abnormal and excessive motion at a vertebral segment results in severe pain and inability to function, a lumbar fusion may be considered:

  • Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease
  • Lumbar Spondylolisthesis (isthmic, degenerative, or postlaminectomy spondylolisthesis)

Other conditions that may be treated by a spinal fusion surgery include a weak or unstable spine (caused by infections or tumors), fractures, scoliosis, or deformity.

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SPINAL FUSION SURGERY HOSPITALS IN INDIA

Advanced Liver Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

What is the difference between liver tumor and liver cancer ?

Any mass or nodule in the liver is known as a liver tumor. Liver tumors can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). The most common type of cancer that originates in the liver is  hepatocellular  carcinoma (HCC).

What are the causes of primary liver cancer ?

There is no one cause of primary liver cancer. Several factors increase a person likelihoodliver 123 of developing liver cancer. Some risk factors for liver cancer include:
Viral hepatitis – Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are an important cause for the development of liver cancer. It is estimated that about 5-10 percent of people with HBV or HCV will develop liver cancer.

  • Cirrhosis is a progressive disorder that leads to scarring of the liver. Cirrhosis is the end result of all forms of long standing liver damage. Cirrhosis is caused by Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, alcohol abuse, fatty liver and certain genetic disorders.  5-10 percent of patients with cirrhosis will develop liver cancer.
  • Toxins such as Arsenic – Drinking water (usually well water) contaminated with arsenic also increase risk for developing liver cancer. Obesity may increase the risk of liver cancer.
  • Diabetes can increase the risk of liver cancer, especially in those who drink alcohol heavily or have chronic viral hepatitis B or C infection.

What are the symptoms of liver cancer ?

Liver cancer usually has no obvious symptoms, and people at risk should be followed regularly to detect cancer at an early stage. The following symptoms might be caused by liver cancer:

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Anorexia (persistent lack of appetite)
  • Early satiety (feeling very full after a small meal)
  • Persistent abdominal pain
  • Increasing abdominal girth (swelling of the “stomach” area) with or without breathing difficulty
  • Sudden jaundice (yellowness of the skin and eyes)
  • Sudden deterioration in the overall condition of a patient with cirrhosis

Which treatments are used for liver cancer?

In creating your treatment plan, important factors to consider include the stage (extent) of thedfe.jpg cancer and the health of the rest of your liver. But you and your cancer care team will also want to take into account the possible side effects of treatment, your overall health, and the chances of curing the disease, extending life, or relieving symptoms. Based on these factors, your treatment options may include:

  • Surgery (partial hepatectomy or liver transplant)
  • Tumor ablation
  • Tumor embolization
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy

What tests will I have to detect liver cancer ?

If liver cancer is suspected, the doctor will conduct a physical examination and order special ests. Further tests may include alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test, ultrasound scan, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography, laparoscopy and biopsy. It is important to detect liver cancers early because small cancers in a patient who has minimal symptoms can be treated effectively.

What is liver cancer screening ?

Liver cancer screening is the best way to detect liver cancer early in its course. It is performed to detect small cancers that do not produce any symptoms. Small cancers can be treated more effectively. Patients who have a liver disease that puts them at a high risk of developing liver cancer (such as hepatitis B, any form of cirrhosis) should undergo periodic screening tests. It usually involves a blood test to look for a cancer marker (alpha-feto-protein) and an ultrasound scan of the liver to look for actual cancer. You must understand that screening tests are not 100 percent accurate and your doctor may advise you additional tests if he suspects that you may have a liver cancer.

How is liver cancer treated ?

Liver cancer treatment depends on:

  • The liver condition
  • The size, location, and number of tumors
  • If the cancer has spread outside the liver
  • The person age and overall health

Can a liver transplant be done for liver cancer ?

Surgery is the most effective therapy for most types of liver cancer, but doctors will usually combine  different methods to treat the cancer most effectively. When surgery to remove the cancer itself cannot be performed, your doctor may suggest a liver transplantation in which the cancer along with the entire liver is replaced thus curing the patient.

If I have been diagnosed to have liver cancer, what questions should I ask my doctor ?

  • You and your family should have a clear understanding of the disease and the treatment plan.
  • What is my diagnosis?
  • What is the stage of the disease?
  • What are my treatment choices? Which do you recommend for me? Why?
  • What are the chances that the treatment will be successful?
  • What are the risks and possible side effects of each treatment?
  • How long will my treatment last?
  • Will I have to change my normal activities?
  • What is the treatment likely to cost?
  • What are the prospects for liver transplantation?

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Advanced Liver Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

Best Knee Replacement Surgery Hospitals in India

What is Knee Replacement Surgery?

Knee replacement surgery is a procedure that decreases the pain and improves the quality of life.knee-replacement-surgery3 During total joint replacement surgery, the worn-out surfaces of the joint are removed/shaved off and replaced with implants. The femoral(thigh bone) and tibial(leg bone) component is made up of a metal alloy that covers the end of these bones. The insert/spacer that is put between the two metal components serves as a cushion, a smooth gliding surface between the two.

The patella (knee cap) is resurfaced with a special polyethylene.

Knee joint is the most complicated joint of the body. It consists of three components junction of three bones: the patella (knee cap), distal femoral condyles(thigh bone) and the proximal tibial plateau(leg bone). The ends are covered with articular cartilage- an elastic material that allows the knee to move freely. If damaged, the cartilage cannot repair itself.

INDICATIONS OF TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

  • Ostheoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Post traumatic Arthritis
  • Gouty arthritis
  • Pain in Deformed Knee

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis most commonly referred to as the wear and tear of the joint usually affects the elderly and middle age to elderly people.

In osteoarthritis the cartilage between the joint breaks down.

CAUSES

  • Older age
  • Obesity
  • Previous traumatic joint injury/overuse of joints
  • Joint deformity

What are the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis?

  • Pain in and around the joint
  • Stiffness
  • Difficulty in squatting and sitting crossed leg
  • Difficulty in negotiating stairs
  • Deformities of the joint
  • Inability to walk for long distances
  • Joint swelling
  • Decreased movement of the joint

HOW TO DIAGNOSE?

  • History and clinical examination
  • Standing X rays of the knee joint
  • Some patients may knee CT Scan/ MRI

Who are the right candidates for Knee Replacement Surgery?

The surgical treatment becomes an option in severe cases and the medical treatment fails.

Medical Treatment includes:

  • Activity modification.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Joint injections

Surgical Indications are:

  • When the medical treatment fails to relieve the pain.
  • There is severe deformity of the joint so much so that it affects the daily activities of the patient.
  • There is instability of the knee joint.
  • There is decreased range of motion of the joint.

How you prepare

An orthopedic surgeon performs knee replacement procedures. Before the procedure, the surgeon takes your medical history and performs a physical examination to assess your knee’s range of motion, stability and strength. X-rays can help determine the extent of knee damage.knee-replacement-surgery-banner-1

Knee replacement surgery requires anesthesia to make you comfortable during surgery. Your input and personal preference help the team decide whether to use general anesthesia, which makes you unconscious, or spinal or epidural anesthesia, which leaves you awake but unable to feel pain from your waist down.

Your doctor or anesthesiologist might advise you to stop taking certain medications and dietary supplements before your surgery. You’ll likely be instructed not to eat anything after midnight before your surgery.

Plan for your recovery

For several weeks after the procedure, you might need to use crutches or a walker. Make arrangements for transportation home from the hospital and help with everyday tasks, such as cooking, bathing and doing laundry. If you live alone, your surgeon’s staff or hospital discharge planner can suggest a temporary caretaker.

To make your home safer and easier to navigate during recovery, consider making the following improvements:

  • Create a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult.
  • Install safety bars or a secure handrail in your shower or bath.
  • Secure stairway handrails.
  • Get a stable chair with a firm seat cushion and back, and a footstool to elevate your leg.
  • Arrange for a toilet-seat riser with arms if you have a low toilet.
  • Try a stable bench or chair for your shower.
  • Remove loose rugs and cords.

Results

  • For most people, knee replacement provides pain relief, improved mobility and a better quality of life. Talk with your doctor about what you can expect from knee replacement surgery.
  • Three to six weeks after surgery, you generally can resume most daily activities, such as shopping and light housekeeping. Driving is also possible at around three weeks if you can bend your knee far enough to sit in a car and if you have enough muscle control to operate the brakes and accelerator.
  • After you’ve recovered, you can enjoy a variety of low-impact activities, such as walking, swimming, golfing or biking. But you should avoid higher impact activities — such as jogging, skiing, tennis and sports that involve contact or jumping. Talk to your doctor about your limitations.

MyMedOpinion.com gets you Medical Opinion from India’s top Specialists and Best Treatment Cost from World Class hospitals in India- in just 24-48 hours

MyMedOpinion.com  affiliated   Best hospitals in India provide an medical opinion from experienced surgeons and the treatment cost includes companion stay  , surgeon fee, medicines and consumables, nursing care, patient’s food and airport pick up & drop etc. etc. We offer free, no obligation assistance to international patients to find world class medical treatment in India. We offer support and services to facilitate the care you require. We can help you find the best hospital in India

Send us a Medical Report to Get FREE Medical Opinion from India’s Top Doctors

MyMedOpinion.com is the hub of Surgeons and specialists for major diseases. We give you a chance to speak to our doctors and discuss your health issues directly.

Email Us: info@mymedopinion.com  Call Us: +91-9654683991

Best Knee Replacement Surgery Hospitals in India