Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Liver Cancer or hepatic tumor could be a cancer of Liver. There are many varieties differing types|differing kinds} of tumours that may develop within the liver as liver is formed cancer-imageof various cell types. These growths is benign or malignant. Cancerous tumours will begin in liver and spread to alternative areas of your body, through your blood or your lymphatic system. This unfold of cancer is termed metastasis. Tumours can also unfold from alternative components of your body, like from your bowel, breast or lungs, to your liver.

Knowing the signs helps a doctor to create an accurate diagnosis call regarding the cancer stage and its treatment. The below-mentioned factors signal regarding cancer, and if you observe these for a extended period, consult a doctor for treatment.

Symptoms

Most people don’t have signs and symptoms in the early stages of primary liver cancer. When signs and symptoms do appear, they may include:

  • Losing weight without trying
  • Loss of appetite
  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • General weakness and fatigue
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Yellow discoloration of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) White, chalky stools.

Treatment overview                                           

In cancer care, differing kinds of doctors typically work along to create a patient’s overall treatment set up that combines differing kinds of treatments.. Cancer care groups also include a spread of alternative health care professionals, as well as physician assistants, medicine nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors:

  • How much of the liver is affected by the cancer
  • Whether the cancer has spread
  • The patient’s preferences and overall health
  • The damage to the remaining cancer-free area of the liver.

When a tumor is found at associate early stage and therefore the patient’s liver is functioning well, treatment is aimed at attempting to eliminate the cancer. The care arrange may additionally include treatment for symptoms and aspect effects, a very important a part of cancer care once liver cancer is found at a later stage, or the patient’s liver isn’t operating well, the patient and doctor should talk about the goals of every treatment recommendation. At now, the goals of treatment could specialize in slowing growth of the cancer and relieving symptoms to improve quality of life.

The various disease-directed treatment options can be grouped according to whether they may cure the cancer or will improve survival but will most likely not eliminate the cancer. Descriptions of the most common treatment options, both disease-directed and those aimed at managing side effects and symptoms, are listed below. Take time to learn about your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your doctor and what you can expect while receiving the treatment.

Two types of surgery are used to treat.

  • Hepatectomy :-when a portion of the liver is removed, the surgery is named a hepatectomy. A hepatectomy will be done provided that the cancer is in one a part of the liver and also the liver is functioning well. The remaining section of liver takes over the functions of the whole liver. The liver might grow back to its traditional size at intervals many weeks. A hepatectomy might not be possible if the patient has advanced cirrhosis, even if the tumour is little.

The side effects of a hepatectomy may include pain, weakness, fatigue, and temporary liver failure. The health care team will watch for signs of bleeding, infection, liver failure, or other problems that need immediate treatment.

  • Liver transplantation. Sometimes, a liver transplantation can be done. This procedure is possible only when the cancer has not spread outside the liver, a suitable donor is found, and very specific criteria are met in terms of tumor size and number. These criteria usually are a single tumor 5 cm or smaller or 3 or fewer tumors, all of which are smaller than 3 cm. It is important to understand that the number of donor livers available is very limited, so transplantation is not always an option.

After a transplant, the patient will be watched closely for signs that the body might be rejecting the new liver or that the tumor has come back. The patient must take medication to prevent rejection. These drugs can cause side effects, such as puffiness in the face, high blood pressure, or increased body hair.

Liver transplantation is a particularly effective treatment for people with a small tumor because transplantation removes the tumor and the damaged liver. However, there are few donors, and people waiting for a liver transplant may have to wait for a long time before a liver becomes available. During this time, the disease may get worse. The transplant center will advise you on how long the wait is likely to be and what rules are used to prioritize people on the waiting list.

Diagnosing liver cancer

Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver cancer include:

  • Blood tests. Blood tests may reveal liver function abnormalities.
  • Imaging tests. Your doctor may recommend imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Removing a sample of liver tissue for testing. Your doctor may recommend removing a piece of liver tissue for laboratory testing in order to make a definitive diagnosis of liver cancer.
  • Ultrasound test — The ultrasound device uses sound waves that cannot be heard by humans. The sound waves produce a pattern of echoes as they bounce off internal organs. The echoes create a picture (sonogram) of the liver and other organs in the abdomen. Tumors may produce echoes that are different from the echoes made by healthy tissues.
  • MRI — A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures are viewed on a monitor and can also be printed.
  • Angiogram — For an angiogram, the patient may be in the hospital and may have anesthesia. The doctor injects dye into an artery so that the blood vessels in the liver show up on an x-ray. The angiogram can reveal a tumor in the liver.
  • Biopsy — In some cases, the doctor may remove a sample of tissue. A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue. The doctor may obtain tissue in several ways. One way is by inserting a thin needle into the liver to remove a small amount of tissue. This is called fine-needle aspiration. The doctor may use CT or ultrasound to guide the needle. Sometimes the doctor obtains a sample of tissue with a thick needle (core biopsy) or by inserting a thin, lighted tube (laparoscope) into a small incision in the abdomen. Another way is to remove tissue during an operation.

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Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital in India

Best Brain Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

A brain tumor or cancer grows once irregular cells are formed inside the region of brain. There are mainly 2 varieties of tumors like cancerous tumors and non-cancerous tumors. Cancerouscancer123 tumors could also be categorized into primary tumors that grow inside the brain itself and such tumors that spread from some totally different part recognized as brain metastasis tumors. all types of brain tumors will produce symptoms and signs that vary in keeping with the regions of the brain involved. Brain Cancer may be a illness which can be diagnosed and analysed with a thorough remedial examination. It doesn’t refer a schedule sickness since for the most conditions, it’s terribly deadly. it always happens once one form of the brain tissue loses its general options and transforms and begins multiplying to formulate an irregular lump of cells called tumor. nevertheless, not all sort of brain tumors is cancerous. Non cancerous brain tumors don’t have any threat and should be with success separated.

Types of Brain Cancer

  • Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma
  • Schwannoma
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Chordoma
  • Ptic nerve glioma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Pituitary neuroectodermal
  • Ganglioneuroma
  • Brain stem glioma
  • Pineal tumors
  • Meningioma
  • Primitive neuroectodermal
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Mixed glioma
  • Craniopharyngioma

Brain tumors can cause many symptoms. Some of the most common are

  • Headaches, often in the morning
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in your ability to talk, hear, or see
  • Problems with balance or walking
  • Problems with thinking or memory
  • Feeling weak or sleepy
  • Changes in your mood or behavior
  • Seizures

Doctors diagnose brain tumors by doing a neurologic exam and tests including an MRI, CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get a combination of treatments.

Diagnosis of Brain Tumor:-

Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) exerting a limiting control for any substance to pass. Hence, most tracers would be able reach brain tumors only with the disruption of the BBB. The disruption of the BBB (blood-brain-barrier) can be detected by a MRI and CT.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s brain-tumorgeneral health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Treatment for Brain Cancer

There are various methods undertaken by the doctors as treatment methods. However, some of them are mentioned here. Effective treatment for brain cancer must be personalized for each and every patient. Treatment schedules are depended on the victim’s general health condition and age as well as the location, malignancy, type, size, and phase of the cancerous tumor. In most of the cases of brain cancer, radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the major kinds of treatment. Frequently, more than one treatment type is applied. India has come the best destination for Brain Cancer Treatment now a days due to availability of Most Advanced Technology & highly skill team of doctors, surgeons & para medical staff. One can gets best Brain Cancer Treatment in India very affordable Rates and assists you in facilitating you further lowest treatment cost for best medical treatment you are looking for.

The patient, family, and friends will have many questions about the tumor, the treatment, how treatment will affect the person, and the person’s long-term outlook (prognosis). So, everyone take needed precaution. Love and support is also needed.

Surgery as the way of Treatment

Surgery is normally the exclusion of the cancerous tumor and adjoining tissues during the process of operation. There are several sorts of surgery available for brain cancer, and the most helpful option frequently depends on the phase and malignancy of the brain cancer.

Additional treatment options for high-grade tumors include:

  • Radiation therapy: X-rays and other forms of radiation can destroy tumor cells or delay tumor growth.
  • Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to kill rapidly dividing cells. It can be taken orally or intravenously.
  • Targeted therapy: The focus on a specific element of a cell, such as molecules or pathways required for cell growth, in order to use them as a target.
  • Tumor Treating Fields: (A wearable device) locally or regionally delivered treatment that produces electric fields to disrupt the rapid cell division exhibited by cancer cells by creating alternating, “wave-like” electric fields that travel across their region of usage in different directions. Because structures within dividing cells have an electric charge, they interact with these electric fields.

Best brain cancer hospitals in India are as follows:

  • Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Chennai
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Bangalore
  • Jaypee Hospital, Noida

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Best Brain Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

 

What are signs and symptoms?

Signs and symptoms are both signals of injury, illness, disease – signals that something is not right in the body.

A sign is a signal that can be seen by someone else – maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. For example, fever, fast breathing, and abnormal lung sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

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A symptom is a signal that’s felt or noticed by the person who has it, but may not be easily seen by anyone else. For example, weakness, aching, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of pneumonia.

Having one sign or symptom may not be enough to figure out what’s causing it. For example, a rash in a child could be a sign of a number of things, such as poison ivy, measles, a skin infection, or a food allergy. But if the child has the rash along with other signs and symptoms like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a sore throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the illness. Sometimes, a patient’s signs and symptoms still don’t give the doctor enough clues to be sure what’s causing the illness. Then medical tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.

How does cancer cause signs and symptoms?

Cancer is a group of diseases that can cause almost any sign or symptom. The signs and symptoms will depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects the organs or tissues. If a cancer has spread (metastasized), signs or symptoms may appear in different parts of the body.

As a cancer grows, it can begin to push on nearby organs, blood vessels, and nerves. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer. If the cancer is in a critical area, such as certain parts of the brain, even the smallest tumor can cause symptoms.

But sometimes cancer starts in places where it won’t cause any signs or symptoms until it has grown quite large. Cancers of the pancreas, for example, usually don’t cause symptoms until they grow large enough to press on nearby nerves or organs (this causes back or belly pain). Others may grow around the bile duct and block the flow of bile. This causes the eyes and skin to look yellow (jaundice). By the time a pancreatic cancer causes signs or symptoms like these, it’s usually in an advanced stage. This means it has grown and spread beyond the place it started – the pancreas.

A cancer may also cause symptoms like fever, extreme tiredness (fatigue), or weight loss. This may be because cancer cells use up much of the body’s energy supply, or they may release substances that change the way the body makes energy from food. Cancer can also cause the immune system to react in ways that produce these signs and symptoms.

Sometimes, cancer cells release substances into the bloodstream that cause symptoms that are not usually linked to cancer. For example, some cancers of the pancreas can release substances that cause blood clots in veins of the legs. Some lung cancers make hormone-like substances that raise blood calcium levels. This affects nerves and muscles, making the person feel weak and dizzy.

How are signs and symptoms helpful?

Treatment works best when cancer is found early – while it’s still small and is less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. This often means a better chance for a cure, especially if the cancer can be removed with surgery.

A good example of the importance of finding cancer early is melanoma skin cancer. It can be easy to remove if it has not grown deep into the skin. The 5-year survival rate (percentage of people who live at least 5 years after diagnosis) at this early stage is around 98%. Once melanoma has spread to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate drops to about 16%.

Sometimes people ignore symptoms. Maybe they don’t know that the symptoms could mean something is wrong. Or they might be frightened by what the symptoms could mean and 

don’t want to get medical help. Maybe they just can’t afford to get medical care.

Some symptoms, such as tiredness or coughing, are more likely caused by something other than cancer. Symptoms can seem unimportant, especially if there’s a clear cause or the problem only lasts a short time. In the same way, a person may reason that a symptom like a breast lump is probably a cyst that will go away by itself. But no symptom should be ignored or overlooked, especially if it has lasted a long time or is getting worse.

Most likely, symptoms are not caused by cancer, but it’s important to have them checked out, just in case. If cancer is not the cause, a doctor can help figure out what the cause is and treat it, if needed.

Sometimes, it’s possible to find cancer before having symptoms. The American Cancer Society and other health groups recommend cancer-related check-ups and certain tests for people even though they have no symptoms. This helps find certain cancers early, before symptoms start. For more information on early detection tests, see our document called American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer. But keep in mind, even if you have these recommended tests, it’s still important to see a doctor if you have any symptoms.

What are some general signs and symptoms of cancer?

You should know some of the general signs and symptoms of cancer. But remember, having any of these does not mean that you have cancer – many other things cause these signs and symptoms, too. If you have any of these symptoms and they last for a long time or get worse, please see a doctor to find out what’s going on.

Unexplained weight loss

Most people with cancer will lose weight at some point. When you lose weight for no known reason, it’s called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung.

Fever

Fever is very common with cancer, but it more often happens after cancer has spread from where it started. Almost all people with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.

Fatigue

Fatigue is extreme tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest. It may be an important symptom as cancer grows. But it may happen early in some cancers, like leukemia. Some colon or stomach cancers can cause blood loss that’s not obvious. This is another way cancer can cause fatigue.

Pain

Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. Most often, pain due to cancer means it has already spread (metastasized) from where it started.

Skin changes

Along with skin cancers, some other cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen. These signs and symptoms include:

  • Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
  • Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Reddened skin (erythema)
  • Itching (pruritis)
  • Excessive hair growth

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Signs and Symptoms of Cancer

Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

What Is Liver Cancer?

The liver continuously filters blood that circulates through the body, converting nutrients and drugs absorbed from the digestive tract into ready-to-use chemicalscancer-image. The liver performs many other important functions, such as removing toxins and other chemical waste products from the blood and readying them for excretion. Because all the blood in the body must pass through it, the liver is unusually accessible to cancer cells traveling in the bloodstream.

 

What causes liver cancer?

Many factors may play a role in the development of cancer. Because the liver filters blood from all parts of the body, cancer cells from elsewhere can lodge in the liver and start to grow. Cancers that begin in the gut often spread to the liver. The ability of the liver to regenerate may also be linked to the development of liver cancers.

How are liver cancers classified?

There are many types of liver tumours, only some of which are cancers. The most important classification is whether the tumours are benign (relatively harmless) or malignant (capable of spreading from the liver and thus more serious)

Benign Tumours 

Hemangioma is the most common type of benign liver tumour. It is an abnormal growth of blood vessels of the liver that begins in the fetus. More than 10% of the normal population has hemanigomas in the liver. Most people with hemangiomas have no symptoms and require no treatment. Some hemangiomas may rarely enlarge and bleed in which case they may require surgical removal.

Hepatic adenomas are benign tumours of liver cells. Most do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment. However, if they are large they may cause pain or blood loss and may need to be removed. Hepatic adenomas occur more frequently in women and seem to be triggered in some cases by the birth control pill or by pregnancy.

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a tumour-like growth of several cell types. Although FNH tumours are benign, it can be hard to distinguish them from liver cancers.

Malignant Tumours 

The most common form of primary liver cancer (cancer that starts in the liver) in adults is called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is a cancer of liver cells. This type of cancer can have different growth patterns. Some begin as a single tumour that grows larger. It may spread to other parts of the liver in later stages of the disease.

Liver cancer may also develop in more than one site in the liver and may grow into multiple tumours. This pattern is most often seen in people with liver cirrhosis.

Another liver cancer is called cholangiocarcinoma. It originates in the small bile ducts which are tubes that carry bile to the gall bladder. Most often, however, when cancer occurs in the liver, it did not start there, but spread to the liver from a cancer that began somewhere else in the body. These types of cancers are named after the place where they began (primary site) and are considered secondary liver cancers or cancer metastases.

What are the risk factors associated with liver cancer?

  • In the absence of chronic liver disease liver cancer is rare. However, in patients with underlying liver disease, liver cancer may be quite common. The exact cause of liver cancer is not known. Scientists have identified many risk factors that can make someone more likely to develop liver cancer:
  • Among those with chronic liver disease, men are more likely to develop liver cancer than are women. The reason for this is unknown.
  • Viral infectionof the liver: Chronic infection with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C may lead to the development of cancer.
  • Certain types of inherited liver disease such ashemochromatosis, which results in accumulation of too much iron in the liver, as well as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and tyrosinemia can lead to the development of liver cancer later in life.
  • Cirrhosis is the formation of scar tissue in the liver. This can often lead to cancer. Major causes of liver cirrhosis are alcohol use, chronic hepatitis B and C, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Most causes of cirrhosis are also associated with the development of liver cancer.
  • Alcohol: excessive alcohol use is a known risk factor for development of alcoholic cirrhosis and liver cancer.
  • Obesity increases the risk of liver cancer in those patients in whom it causes liver disease.
  • Tobacco use increases the risk of liver cancer if you already have chronic liver disease.
  • Anabolic steroids: long-term use of anabolic steroids can increase the risk of liver cancer.

What are the symptoms of liver cancer?

In the early stages, liver cancer does not cause symptoms. Some common symptoms of advanced liver cancer include:

  • weight loss
  • loss of appetite
  • abdominal pain
  • jaundice
  • fluid in the abdomen (ascites)

How is liver cancer detected?

Liver-Imaging

  • ultrasound
  • blood testto check for increased levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • computer tomography scan (CT)
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Which treatments are used for liver cancer?

In creating your treatment plan, important factors to consider include the stage (extent) of the cancer and the health of the rest of your liver. But you and your cancer care team will also want to take into account the possible side effects of treatment, your overall health, and the chances of curing the disease, extending life, or relieving symptoms. Based on these factors, your treatment options may include:

  • Surgery (partial hepatectomy or liver transplant)
  • Tumor ablation
  • Tumor embolization
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy

Which doctors treat liver cancer?

Depending on your situation, you may have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors may include:

  • A surgeon: a doctor who treats diseases with surgery.
  • A radiation oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with radiation therapy.
  • A medical oncologist: a doctor who treats cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy.
  • A gastroenterologist: a doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the digestive system, including the liver.

Many other specialists may be involved in your care as well, including nurse practitioners, nurses, nutrition specialists, social workers, and other health professionals.

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Best Liver Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

Best Prostate Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

What Means Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is that the cancer that happens in prostate gland in men. prostate gland isImage result for prostate cancer treatment accountable to transfers sperm. it’s one amongst the foremost common kinds of cancer. The cancer sometimes grows slowly and confined to the gland whereas it’s going to spread resulting in advanced stage. If the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, it will be treated with success.

Once your doctor determines the stage of your prostate cancer, he can start mapping out a treatment plan. Stage is based on:

  • The size of your tumor
  • How far it has spread
  • The chances of it coming back

Matching the right treatment with your stage isn’t always cut and dry. You might benefit from a combo of a few different approaches. Together, you and your doctor will decide on the best treatment.

There are three different doctors who might be involved in your care:

  • A medical oncologist, who treats cancer
  • A radiation oncologist, who also treats cancer
  • A urologist, who specializes in problems with the urinary tract and male reproductive organs

Here are the stages of prostate cancer along with common treatment options.

Stage I

The cancer is small, and it hasn’t grown outside your prostate. Slow-growing cancers might never cause symptoms or other health problems.


In this stage, your PSA levels and Gleason scores are low, and that’s good. When they’re higher, your cancer is more aggressive. It’s also more likely to come back and require more intensive treatment.

The PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test measures levels of this protein in your blood. Your doctor then determines your Gleason score by looking at prostate tissue cells under a microscope.

With stage I, you should consider the following treatment approaches:

  • Active surveillance. Your doctor tracks your PSA levels. If those levels rise, it might mean your cost-of-prostate-cancer-treatment-in-indiacancer is growing or spreading. Your doctor can then change your treatment. He might also do tests like rectal exams and ultrasounds.

Watchful waiting. This involves fewer tests than active surveillance. Your doctor keeps a close watch on your symptoms. If you’re an older man, or you have other

  • serious health problems, your doctor might opt for this method.
  • Radiation therapy. This kills prostate cancer cells or keeps them from growing and dividing. There are two types of this treatment. The “external” kind uses a machine to aim a beam of radiation at your tumor. With “internal radiation,” a doctor places radioactive pellets or seeds in or next to the tumor — this procedure is also known as brachytherapy.
  • Radical prostatectomy. This is a surgery to remove your prostate and some of the surrounding tissue.
  • Ablation therapy. This treatment uses freezing or high-intensity ultrasound to kill cancer cells.

Stage II

The cancer is much larger, but it hasn’t spread outside your prostate. Your PSA levels and Gleason scores are also higher. Surgery or radiation is often needed to keep it from spreading.

With stage II, you should consider the following treatments:

  • Active surveillance. In this stage, it’s typically used if you’re a much older man or you have other serious health problems.
  • Radiation therapy, possibly combined with hormone therapy. Those are drugs that stop testosterone from helping your cancer cells grow.
  • Radical prostatectomy

Stage III

The cancer has spread beyond your prostate, but it hasn’t reached your bladder, rectum, lymph nodes, or nearby organs.

With stage III, you should consider the following treatments:

  • External radiation plus hormone therapy
  • External radiation plus brachytherapy and possible hormone therapy
  • Radical prostatectomy, often combined with removal of your pelvic lymph nodes. Your doctor might recommend radiation after surgery.

Stage IV

This happens when your cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, lymph nodes, organs, or bones. Cases of stage IV are rarely cured. Still, treatments can extend your life and ease your pain.

In this stage, you should consider the following treatments:

  • Hormone therapy, which is often combined with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy
  • Surgery to relieve symptoms such as bleeding or urinary obstruction and to remove cancerous lymph nodes
  • External radiation with or without hormone therapy
  • Chemotherapy, if standard treatments don’t relieve symptoms and the cancer continues to grow. The drugs will shrink cancer cells and slow their growth.
  • Bisphosphonate drugs, which can help slow the growth of cancer in the bone and help prevent fractures
  • The vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge), which boosts your immune system so it will attack the cancer cells. This might be used when hormone therapy doesn’t work.
  • Palliative care, which offers you relief from symptoms like pain and trouble peeing

What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

There are no warning signs of early prostate cancer. Once a tumor causes the prostate gland to swell, or once cancer spreads beyond the prostate, the following symptoms may happen:

  • A frequent need to urinate, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting or stopping a stream of urine
  • A weak or interrupted urinary stream
  • Leaking of urine when laughing or coughing
  • Inability to urinate standing up
  • A painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation
  • Blood in urine or semen

These are not symptoms of the cancer itself; instead, they are caused by the blockage from the cancer growth in the prostate. They can also be caused by an enlarged, noncancerous prostate or by a urinary tract infection.

Symptoms of advanced prostate cancer include:

  • Dull, deep pain or stiffness in the pelvis, lower back, ribs, or upper thighs; pain in the bones of those areas
  • Loss of weight and appetite, fatigue, nausea, or vomiting
  • Swelling of the lower extremities
  • Weakness or paralysis in the lower limbs, often with constipation

Call Your Doctor About Prostate Cancer If:

  • You have trouble urinating or find that urination is painful or different from normal; your doctor should examine your prostate gland to determine whether it is enlarged, inflamed with an infection, or cancerous.
  • You have chronic pain in your lower back, pelvis, upper thighbones, or other bones. Pain in these areas can be caused by different things, including the spread of prostate cancer.
  • You have unexplained weight loss.
  • You have swelling in your legs.
  • You have weakness in your legs or difficulty walking, especially if you also have constipation.

Diagnosis & Tests

How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?

Two initial tests are commonly used to look for prostate cancer in the absence of any symptoms. One is the digital rectal exam, in which a doctor feels the prostate through the rectum to find hard or lumpy areas known as nodules. The other is a blood test used to detect a substance made by the prostate called “prostate-specific antigen” (PSA). When used together, these tests can detect abnormalities that might suggest prostate cancer.

Neither of these initial tests for prostate cancer is perfect. Many men with a mildly elevated PSA do not have prostate cancer, and men with prostate cancer may have normal levels of PSA. Also, the digital rectal exam does not detect all prostate cancers, as it can only assess the back portion of the prostate gland.

The diagnosis can only be confirmed by examining prostate cells under a microscope. This is done by performing a biopsy in a urologist’s office. A small sample of tissue is taken from the prostate for testing and evaluation under a microscope.

Your doctor is likely to discuss your medical history with you. Answering questions about any history of genital or urinary disease in your family can help your doctor make an accurate diagnosis. Your doctor may also ask about any changes in your pattern of urinating.

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Best Prostate Cancer Treatment Hospitals in India

Best Breast Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India

Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, and its main purpose is to remove as much of the cancer as possible. There are different types of surgery. You may have a choice about which type to have.Sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-article.__v20048088 Or your doctor may recommend a certain operation based on your breast cancer type and your medical history. It’s important to know about your options so you can talk about them with your doctor and make the choice that is right for you.

Most women with breast cancer have some type of surgery as part of their treatment. Depending on the situation, surgery may be done for different reasons. For example, surgery may be done to:

  • Remove as much of the cancer as possible (breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy)
  • Find out whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm (sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection)
  • Restore the breast’s shape after the cancer is removed (breast reconstruction)
  • Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer.

Types of surgery

There are many different types of surgery for breast cancer. The type you have depends on:

  • the size of the cancer
  • where the cancer is in your breast
  • the size of your breasts
  • your personal wishes and feelings

Surgery to remove breast cancer

There are two main types of surgery to remove breast cancer:

  • Breast-conserving surgery (also called a lumpectomyquadrantectomypartial mastectomy, or segmental mastectomy)  in which only the part of the breast containing the cancer is removed. The goal is to remove the cancer as well as some surrounding normal tissue. How much of the breast is removed depends on the size and location of the tumor and other factors.
  • Mastectomy – in which the entire breast is removed, including all of the breast tissue and sometimes other nearby tissues. There are several different types of mastectomies. Some women may also get a double mastectomy, in which both breasts are removed.

Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes

To find out if the breast cancer has spread to axillary (underarm) lymph nodes, one or more of these lymph nodes will be removed and looked at under the microscope. This is an important part of figuring out the stage (extent) of the cancer. Lymph nodes can be removed either as part of the surgery to remove the breast cancer or as a separate operation.

The two main types of surgery to remove lymph nodes are:

  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB)  in which the surgeon removes only the lymph node(s) under the arm to which the cancer would likely spread first. Removing only one or a few lymph nodes lowers the risk of side effects from the surgery.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) – in which the surgeon removes anywhere from about 10 to 40 (though usually less than 20) lymph nodes from under the arm. ALND is not done as often as it was in the past, but it might still be the best way to look at the lymph nodes in some situations.

Surgery for advanced breast cancer.

Although surgery is very unlikely to cure breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, it can still be helpful in some situations, either as a way to slow the spread of the cancer, or to help prevent or relieve symptoms from it. For example, surgery might be used:

  • When the breast tumor is causing an open wound in the breast (or chest)
  • To treat a small number of areas of cancer spread (metastases) in a certain part of the body, such as the brain
  • When an area of cancer spread is pressing on the spinal cord
  • To treat a blockage in the liver
  • To provide relief of pain or other symptoms

If your doctor recommends surgery for advanced breast cancer, it’s important that you understand its goal—whether it’s to try to cure the cancer or to prevent or treat symptoms.

Which treatments are used for breast cancer?

There are several ways to treat breast cancer, depending on its type and stage.

Local treatments: Some treatments are called local therapies, meaning they treat the tumor without affecting the rest of the body. Types of local therapy used for breast cancer include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy

These treatments are more likely to be useful for earlier stage (less advanced) cancers, although they might also be used in some other situations.

Systemic treatments: Breast cancer can also be treated using drugs, which can be given by mouth or directly into the bloodstream. These are called systemic therapies because they can reach cancer cells anywhere in the body. Depending on the type of breast cancer, several different types of drugs might be used, including:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Targeted therapy

Many women will get more than one type of treatment for their cancer.

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Best Breast Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India

Prostate Cancer Treatment with Best Hospitals in India

What Means Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is that the cancer that happens in prostate gland in men. prostate gland is accountable to transfers sperm.pros 1 it’s one amongst the foremost common kinds of cancer. The cancer sometimes grows slowly and confined to the gland whereas it’s going to spread resulting in advanced stage. If the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, it will be treated with success.

Prostate cancer symptoms

Urinary symptoms of prostate cancer

Because of the proximity of the prostate gland in relation to the bladder and urethra, prostate cancer may be accompanied by a variety of urinary symptoms. Depending on the size and location, a tumor may press on and constrict the urethra, inhibiting the flow of urine. Some prostate cancer signs related to urination include:

  • Burning or pain during urination
  • Difficulty urinating, or trouble starting and stopping while urinating
  • More frequent urges to urinate at night
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Decreased flow or velocity of urine stream
  • Blood in urine (hematuria)

Other prostate cancer signs & symptoms

Prostate cancer may spread (metastasize) to nearby tissues or bones. If the cancer spreads to the spine, it may press on the spinal nerves. Other prostate cancer symptoms include:

  • Blood in semen
  • Difficulty getting an erection (erectile dysfunction)
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Swelling in legs or pelvic area
  • Numbness or pain in the hips, legs or feet
  • Bone pain that doesn’t go away, or leads to fractures.

Prostate cancer is diagnosed

Digital rectal exam (DRE) : The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall for lumps or abnormal areas.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test:A test that measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer. PSA levels may also be high in men who have an infection or inflammation of the prostate or BPH (an enlarged, but noncancerous, prostate).

Transrectal ultrasound : A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. Transrectal ultrasound may be used during a biopsy procedure.

Biopsy :The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist. The pathologist will examine the biopsy sample to check for cancer cells and determine the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how likely it is that a tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread. There are 2 types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer:

Transrectal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide the needle.

Transperineal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate.

If prostate cancer is diagnosed, the other tests( e.g Radionuclide bone scan, MRI. Pelvic lymphadenectomy, Seminal vesicle biopsy) are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body.

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Prostate Cancer Treatment with Best Hospitals in India